Saturday, May 23, 2020

Jack Ma On Teamwork. Jack Views Teamwork As A Sense Of

Jack ma on teamwork Jack views teamwork as a sense of unity for common interests and responsibilities developed by individuals in an organization. Sometimes people ask why teamwork is so important whereas they can complete tasks well while working alone. Well, teamwork concentrates on the element of synergy where the sum is definitely greater compared to the parts. He further likens teamwork to sports where teams made up of expensive players are regularly outperformed by individually less talented teams. The results can be attributed to the synergistic value of teamwork combined with the role of team manager rather than the price tag of the individuals. Jack Ma always encourages his team to work collaboratively in implementing projects†¦show more content†¦For instance, he demonstrates this in in common situations in his business organization where they often put themselves in a complex situation where they have to decide between competing interests as regarding the buyer and the seller, the seller competes, between entrepreneurship and legal aspects, between innovation and the need to stabilize. Mistakes done by Jack Ma in his Entrepreneurial Journey For over a decade now, Jack Ma and Alibaba are two names that have occupied Chinese online platforms and this does not seem to stop any time soon. They have received several praises from Chinese merchant especially on Taobao – a Chinese online shopping website. Unknown to many, Jack’s achievements didn’t come overnight. They were as a result of making several mistakes which made him better and better in readiness for the future. To begin with, the worst mistake he ever did was relocating the domestic headquarters from Hangzhou to Shanghai. As though this was not enough, he also moved his global base to Silicon Valley. Contrary to his expectations, it turned out that the environment was not right for the firm. The emergence of dot com era hit his United States headquarters while his Shanghai office came face to face with the reality of small manufacturing enterprises that were going global. The strategy caused friction with his most coveted priority, the customers. After getting adequate financial support from joint ventureShow MoreRelatedAlibaba Case3792 Words   |  16 A Smiling Community with a Dream Since its humble beginnings in 1999, when it was launched by Jack Ma and 17 other co-founders, has become the world’s largest online business-to-business global trading marketplace, with 2.5 million and 14 million registered users in its international and Chinese domestic marketplaces respectively (refer to Appendix 1 for key development milestones). In 2004, the Alibaba websites boasted an estimated combined transaction volume of more thanRead MoreIs Jack Ma A Courageous And Inspirational Man That1809 Words   |  8 PagesJack Ma is a courageous and inspirational man that is often considered to be one of the greatest entrepreneurs in the non-western world. The founder and former Chief Executive Officer of the extremely successful and innovative, Chinese e-Commerce company, Alibaba, is worth 21.2 billion dollars (The Richest, 2015). The Financial Times named him â€Å"Person of the Year† in 2013, as he is idolised by the masses for his business and environm ental dedication (Anderlini, 2013) There are a number of reasonsRead MoreCase - Alibaba Group7315 Words   |  30 PagesAlibaba Group At Alibaba, strategy and organization go hand-in-hand. Every year we change the organizational structure in tandem with changes in strategy. Jack Ma, Chief Executive Officer of Alibaba Group, stared through the fog at the cable stays of the Hangzhou Bay Bridge whistling past on his drive to the offices of Taobao (hunting for treasures), Alibabas online marketplace for Chinese retailers and consumers. The longest transoceanic bridge in the world had a long gestation period:Read MoreHrm About Alibaba Essay2390 Words   |  10 PagesAlibaba Group is the worlds outstanding business-to-business e-commerce service company, which provides an efficient online trading platform for buyers and suppliers all over the world. It is Chinas largest e-commerce group which was founded by Jack Ma in 1999, and has developed into seven affiliated groups, namely Alibaba International Business Operations, Alibaba Small Business Operations, Taobao Marketplace,, Juhuasuan, e-Tao and Alibaba Cloud Computing (News, 2012). Besides, AlibabaRead MoreService Effectiveness Through Employee-Customer Linkages7409 Words   |  30 Pages........ ............................................................................................................................................ Driving service effectiveness through employee-customer linkages S. Douglas Pugh, Joerg Dietz, Jack W. Wiley, and Scott M. Brooks Executive Overview ........................................................................................................................................................................ The management team at a nationalRead MoreMonetary Rewards Essay3987 Words   |  16 Pagestransparent and it is a simple measure of performance unlike some complex performance measures that companies use. Employees also like being paid commission because it gives them the feeling of being able to determine their pay. This gives a unique sense of control to ordinary employees which is usually only felt by individuals higher up in an organization. Nevertheless, there is also a downside to using commission as an incentive. It commissions are left uncapped it could encourage behavior thatRead MoreSeven Practices of Successful Organizations14082 Words   |  57 Pagesstatus differences, have multiple components that were previously listed separately. Second, some of the items on the previous list have more to do with the ability to implement high-performance work practices—such as being able to take a long-term view and to realize the benefits of promoting from within  than with describing dimensions of the practices themselves. It is, however, still the case that several of the dimensions of high-performance work arrangements listed, for instance employment securityRead MoreNight Club Operation Management Journal5510 Words   |  23 Pagesuniformity of opinion among marketing experts as to the classification of the elements in service encounters. Reuland et al. (1985:142) suggest that hospitality services consist of a harmonious mixture of three elements: the material product in a narrow sense which in the case of a Nightclub is the food and beverages; the behaviour and attitude of the employees who are responsible for hosting the guest, serving the meal and beverages and who come in direct contact with the guests, and the environment, suchRead MoreOrganization Restructuring26680 Words   |  107 Pagesworkers of their right to pride of workmanship: According to Deming, organizations often fail to recognize employee contributions to the bott om line. If TQM is to be successful employees must have a sense of accomplishment and pride in the product they are producing. In order to foster this sense of pride the organization must empower the employees. Empowerment means that each individual employee has the knowledge and training to inspect his or her own contributions and make necessary improvementsRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words   |  1617 PagesSKILLS 232 233 Building Relationships by Communicating Supportively Gaining Power and Influence 279 Motivating Others 323 Managing Conflict 373 PART III GROUP SKILLS 438 8 Empowering and Delegating 439 9 Building Effective Teams and Teamwork 489 10 Leading Positive Change 533 PART IV SPECIFIC COMMUNICATION SKILLS 590 591 Supplement A Making Oral and Written Presentations Supplement B Conducting Interviews 619 Supplement C Conducting Meetings 651 Appendix I Glossary 673 Appendix

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

The Tragedy Of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder - 1348 Words

The Tragedy of PTSD Twenty veterans a day take their own lives in this nation. Suicide among military veterans is a tragic epidemic in our country. Out of every 100,00 veterans, 3.53% commit suicide; however, for every 100,000 civilian adults only 1.52% take that same drastic action (Thompson). A man by the name of Peter Kaisen from Islip, NY was denied treatment at the Northport VA for mental health issues. He was upset that he was turned away for treatment so he went directly to his car outside the VA and shot himself in the head (Rebelo). Multiple tales such as this graphic suicide are happening across the country. I felt this shockwave when my close friend and team leader, Corporal Christopher J Carter took his own life by crashing and burning alive in his car. His suicide was another demonstration of failing to receive the proper treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder. A veteran commits suicide every 72 minutes, this is a problem fueled by the incompetence and difficulty of receiving treatme nt by the Veterans Health Affairs, a negative stigma that causes veterans to suffer silently from their mental issues, as well as a failed preventative approach on stopping destructive behavior before it’s too late. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder is where a person has residual mental and physical effects from witnessing an extremely traumatic experience. Some examples of this are getting into a massive car crash, being sexually assaulted or being in a combat zone andShow MoreRelatedThe Tragedy Of Macbeth And Macbeth1510 Words   |  7 PagesThe characters in the tragedy of Macbeth show many characteristics and warning signs of mental disorders such as Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), schizophrenia and depression. Since there is scarce evidence of medical testing and research with the mind during the 1500s and 1600s, Shakespeare most likely didn’t understand that the way he portrayed the character’s actions are characteristics for certain diagnosed mental disorders. The history of mental illness and disorders plays a large role inRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Syndrome Essay1722 Words   |  7 Pages There are numerous different mental disorders that people are diagnosed with on an everyday basis. Some mental disorders are genetic, but yet other disorders come from the things that people encounter in life. One mental disorder that is being diagnosed more often every day is called Post Traumatic Stress Syndrome. This is a disorder that does not discriminate based on genetics, race, age, or even sex. This mental disorder occurs due to events in a person’s life. As everyone knows it is naturalRead MoreMacbeth Mental Essay1536 Words   |  7 Pages Macbeth With anger, illusions, stress and so much more I will analyze Macbeth and lady Macbeth for their problems and disorders. In my research I will decipher between certain diseases such as bipolar disease, anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive, panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, stress disorder, borderline personality disorder, schizophrenia, sleeping disorder, and paranoia to see exactly which one of these stress/hurtful symptoms in which they both share. I’veRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1095 Words   |  5 PagesPTSD in Catcher in the Rye Post Traumatic Stress Disorder is most commonly thought of as an illness men and women acquire from experiences while serving in the wars. Some do not even know what it is or how much it affects people s lives. In the novel, The Catcher in the Rye, J.D. Salinger helps to convey what Post Traumatic Stress Disorder really is. PTSD is a curable condition triggered by a traumatic event with many types, causes, and symptoms displayed by Holden Caulfield. All of the peopleRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )906 Words   |  4 Pages POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER Post-traumatic stress disorder, also known as PTSD, is a complicated disorder that begins after a traumatic event ((APA), May 18, 2013). Throughout history, PTSD was also known as railway spine, shell shock, traumatic (war) neurosis, concentration-camp syndrome, and rape-trauma syndrome. This disorder always happens after a personal tragic event. Such events include a natural disaster, murder, war, rape, and vehicular accidents, just to name a few. The importantRead MorePost Traumatic Stress Disorder ( Ptsd )1471 Words   |  6 PagesRunning head: POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER 1 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Student’s Name Course Title School Name April 12, 2017 Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Post-traumatic stress disorder is a mental disorder that many people are facing every day, and it appears to become more prevalent. This disorder is mainly caused by going through or experiencing a traumatic event, and its risk of may be increased by issuesRead MorePtsd Is A Whole Body Tragedy, An Integral Human Event Of Enormous Proportions With Massive Repercussions Essay1553 Words   |  7 Pageswhole-body tragedy, an integral human event of enormous proportions with massive repercussions†. Veterans returning from war should be able to overcome post-traumatic stress disorder by going to health professionals or getting help with counseling. What is PTSD? Post-traumatic stress disorder is a life-threatening exposure in which an individual experiences a flashback to a traumatic event, such as war. Combat often substantially affects the soldier’s minds, but post-traumatic stress disorder can followRead MoreEssay On Ptsd1358 Words   |  6 PagesFor this assignment, I have chosen to create a mock session for a person who is expressing symptoms of PTSD. According to the National Institute of Mental Health, PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder) is a mental health problem which some develop after experiencing or witnessing a terrifying incident. Flashbacks, nightmares, severe anxiety, and uncontrollable thoughts about the event are just a few of the symptoms occurring in those suffering from PTSD. These symptoms go away for most individuals;Read MoreThe Effects Of The Tragedy Of 2001939 Words   |  4 Pages The Effects of the Tragedy of 2001 When the Twin Towers fell on September 11, 2001 it affected thousands of people all over America. Death, screams, and smoke filled the air leaving people heartbroken, injured, and forever changed. The public health of people around the world was challenged by this traumatic event. All of the death tolls, injuries, and respiratory problems flooded screens everywhere. This tragedy occurred on the brink of the technology advance and will be forever ingrained intoRead MoreWar and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Essay1831 Words   |  8 Pagespart of life and that the world will always have conflicts and the only way to resolve these conflicts is by military force. As of May 2014, there are multiple sources of conflict throughout the world, and a large majority of them result in war and tragedy. From the war in Iraq, threats from North Korea, and Russia creating friction with Ukraine, war surrounds and engulfs the world through media, via television sets that are commonly found in many households. Media has caused its viewers to become numb

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

What types of memory are typically impaired in amnesia Free Essays

Abstract Amnesia is a condition that impacts many people worldwide. This essay illustrates the basic overview of the condition alongside the primary components that make up the condition. Evidence demonstrates that neurological amnesia can be caused by many separate influences, which can serve to directly impact a person’s life. We will write a custom essay sample on What types of memory are typically impaired in amnesia? or any similar topic only for you Order Now This study will be of use to the further development of data regarding amnesia. Introduction The problem to the process of learning new information or recalling the past is known as Amnesia (Nissan, Abrahams and Sala 2012). This condition is characterized by two variant conditions: functional amnesia and neurological amnesia. Functional amnesia is not as prevalent as neurological amnesia and can be caused by nonphysical elements (Rugg 1997). In some cases extreme emotion can trigger functional amnesia. In cases that present the functional amnesia condition, the pattern of development is significantly distinct from the neurological amnesia. Amnesia Within the field of neuropsychology, or the discipline of addressing the treatment of memory disorder, the area of Declarative memory, or the section of the brain that deals with conscious facts and day to day events is directly impacted by neurological amnesia (Parkin 2013). Conversely, modern studies suggest that many of the non-conscious or non-declarative forms of knowledge remain intact during these cases. The terms implicit and explicit memory are secondary methods of reference for the areas of non-declarative and declarative memory impacted in the cases of neurological amnesia (Ibid).Most often, neurological amnesia is credited to a traumatic event to the brain including disease that targets the medial diencephalon or the medial temporal lobe or amnesia could be caused by blunt force to the head (Rugg 1997). Two areas are identified within the scope of the functional and neurological amnesia condition: Retrograde and Anterograde (Ellis and Young 1996). The area of neurological amnesia that creates an impediment when patients attempt to learn new facts or acquire new knowledge is known as Anterograde amnesia. The form of neurological amnesia that takes the form of difficulty remembering details that occurred before the trauma is known as retrograde amnesia (Ibid). In nearly every case functional amnesia will be identified by the presence of retrograde amnesia alongside the lack of any anterograde amnesia (Parkin 2013). The functional form of amnesia is classified as a psychological disorder with no specific section of the brain credited with healing. Yet, a common factor of functional amnesia is physical damage to the brain. A distinguishing element present in neurological amnesia is the damage to the function of either the temporal lobe or the diencephalic midline (Rugg 1997). When this form of damage is taken it is labelled as material-specific amnesia. When both sections are involved the results can take any form of functional or neurological amnesia (Ibid). Damage to the left side of the brain is credited with impacting memory for verbal material, while any damage on the right side produces issues with memories in the nonverbal material (Parkin 2013). Alzheimer’s, temporal lobe surgery, extreme illness, alcohol or drug abuse, blunt trauma, ischemia, anoxia or the disruption to an artery aneurism can all be credited with the onset of neurological amnesia. In every case there is a trigger. Case studies In some cases surgery to relieve unassociated conditions can be credited with causing amnesia in both human and animal models (Clark and Squire 2010). In the case of H.M. in the year 1953, surgery was deemed the best option for addressing the patient’s epileptic condition (Ellis and Young 1996). To accomplish this objective surgery removed the medial temporal lobe cortices bilaterally; this was made up of the entorhinal cortex and the majority of the perirhinal cortex. The overall results produced a mixed bag with the rate of epileptic seizures diminishing, yet, the appearance and subsequent persistence of amnesia were noted (Ibid). H.M. was noted to suffer impaired recollection of object locations among other spacial, recall and recognition diminishments. This case illustrates that damage in the hippocampal region has the potential to inflict substantial impairment limited only by the scope of the damage. In areas that exhibit larger medial lesions the tendency to more extre me forms of amnesia is likely (Clark and Squire 2010). An evaluation of this study illustrates the impact that surgery can have on this form of neurological amnesia (Ibid). The onset of this condition was dependant on the trauma caused while undergoing a non-related procedure, resulting in the amnesia diagnosis. The patient NA suffered an injury during a ‘mock duel’ when a portion of the fencing foil entered the right nostril and punctured the base of the brain (Ellis and Young 1996). Following this incident NA exhibited a form of registration amnesia, or issues with acquiring new memories in context with previous memories. In this case the patient had good recall of events that transpired prior to the accident, but very little in the twenty year span since (Ibid). In many ways, his life was suspended at the moment of the trauma. Testing NA produced the knowledge that the subject’s amnesia was considerably tilted towards the verbal over the non-verbal material. NA was much better at syllables and figures than with words (Ibid). In NA’s case his amnesia impacted his ability to incorporate his verbal recall more so than his non-verbal recall capacity. An evaluation of this case illustrates that clear correlation between specific hemisphere damage and resultant amnesia diagnosis. In this case, the targeted area of damage leads to the diagnosis of neurological amnesia. In summary Amnesia is the condition of problems with learning new information or recalling old information. Two separate conditions, functional and neurological forms of amnesia exist. Neuropsychology is concerned with treating memory issues with the Declarative memory, or the day to day operations. Anterograde refers to issues acquiring new knowledge while Retrograde refers to the condition of failing to recall memories. Damage to the right side of the brain impacts memories and nonverbal material while damage to the left side influence verbal memories. Blunt trauma, surgery or illness can produce neuropsychological amnesia. The case of H.M. demonstrates how surgery that impacts the temporal lobe of the can adversely impact memory function, creating a form of neurological amnesia. While surgery did diminish the primary condition, the subsequent result was substantial. Secondarily, the trauma of a puncture to the brain for NA was credited for the onset of neurological amnesia. This condition impacted his verbal retention more so than the non-verbal capacity, creating the perception that the patient was frozen during the period of time in which the trauma occurred. References Clark, R. and Squire, L. 2010. An animal model of recognition memory and medial temporal lobe amnesia: History and current issues. Neuropsychologia, 48 (8), pp. 2234–2244. Ellis, A. and Young, A. 1996. Human cognitive neuropsychology. Hove: Psychology Press. Nissan, J., Abrahams, S. and Della Sala, S. 2012. Amnesiacs might get the gist: Reduced false recognition in amnesia may be the result of impaired item-specific memory. Neurocase, (ahead-of-print), pp. 1–11. Parkin, A. 2013. Memory and Amnesia. Taylor Francis. Rugg, M. 1997. Cognitive neuroscience. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. How to cite What types of memory are typically impaired in amnesia?, Essay examples

Saturday, May 2, 2020

Teaching Reflection free essay sample

The most distinctive of these very good teachers is that their practice is the result of careful reflection . . . They themselves learn lessons each time they teach, evaluating what they do and using these self-critical evaluations to adjust what they do next time. (Why Colleges Succeed, Ofsted 2004, para. 19) What this chapter is about . . . . . . . Reflective practice  ± what is it? Why and how should we do it? Reflection `in and `on action Some models of reflective practice Using reflection as a basis for improving learning and teaching Writing your personal development journal (PDJ) In addition, their professional knowledge and understanding includes: `Ways to reflect, evaluate and use 8 TEACHING IN THE LIFELONG LEARNING SECTOR research to develop own practice and to share good practice with others. As part of their professional practice, they should: `Share good practice with others and engage in continuing professional development through reflection, evaluation and the appropriate use of research. Qualified Teacher Learning and Skills status requires trainees to begin the practice of continuing professional development (CPD) right from the start of their training by keeping a development journal. This practice continues after completion of training; all teachers in lifelong learning are required to provide evidence of a minimum of 30 hours CPD each year in order to maintain their licence to practice. There is one quality above all that makes a good teacher  ± the ability to reflect on what, why and how we do things and to adapt and develop our practice within lifelong learning. Reflection is the key to successful learning for teachers, and for learners. As the LLUK standards make clear reflection is an underpinning value and is the key to becoming a professional teacher. A commonsense view of reflection is that it involves just thinking about things. Perhaps, thinking about the structure of the universe or why you disagreed with your partner last night could be regarded as reflection  ± others might consider it nothing more than idle and self-indulgent speculation. Most of us spend time thinking about what we do and the effects we have on others, but we dont always take it a step further and reflect on our actions and make plans to do things differently. In a professional setting, reflection is: . . . . . . deliberate; purposeful; structured; about linking theory and practice;  to do with learning; about change and development  ± becoming a reflective teacher. Jenny Moon suggests. Reflection is a form of mental processing that we use to fulfil a purpose or to achieve some anticipated outcome. It is applied to gain a better understanding of relatively complicated or unstructured ideas and is largely based on the reprocessing of knowledge, understanding and, possibly, emotions that we already possess. (Moon 2005: 1) THE REFLECTIVE TEACHER 9 From `help! to `second nature The process of reflection helps us to monitor our own development from raw beginner to experienced professional. Reynoldss (1965) model of developing competence in social work suggests the stages seen in Figure 1. 1. Those of you who recall learning to drive will recognise these stages. Mastering, for example, clutch control is a deliberate practice of trying, sometimes failing, trying again, becoming confident, until it eventually becomes an unconscious process. Our teaching careers follow a similar process: early fears about the timing of activities or the use of information technology (IT) are initially difficult, even frightening, but eventually become second nature. Another, uncredited model, suggests a movement through the stages of: . . . . unconscious incompetence  ± in which we are unaware of what we cant do or dont know; conscious incompetence  ± in which we become aware of our development needs and start to do something about them; conscious competence  ± where we are using our new skills and knowledge, but watching and monitoring ourselves; unconscious competence  ± the skills become naturalised. This is like Reynoldss notion of `second nature. Many of our skills, our knowledge and competences will become, like driving a car, second nature. However, we must ensure that `second nature doesnt become complacency. Success in teaching requires us always to challenge and develop our practice by regular reflection and review. David Berliner (2001) outlines the stages of teacher development as going from the Novice  ± raw recruit who is learning the basics and is relatively inflexible  ± to the Expert, who is very much like the racing driver or the Figure 1. 1 From Reynoldss (1965) model of developing competence. 10 TEACHING IN THE LIFELONG LEARNING SECTOR professional footballer who is completely at one with their art, performing effortlessly and naturally. Experience and length of service do not, however, necessarily make an expert; experience needs reflection if we are to become expert teachers. Rollett (2001) describes what it means to be an expert teacher. This is a very useful model and is worth quoting at length: Experts rely on a large repertoire of strategies and skills that they can call on automatically, leaving them free to deal with unique or unexpected events . . . The wealth of knowledge and routines that they employ, in fact, is so automatic that they often do not realise why they preferred a certain plan of action over another. However, when questioned, they are able to reconstruct the reasons for their decisions and behaviour. (Rollett 2001: 27) Reflection  ± some theory John Dewey was a leading educational philosopher of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries whose ideas are still influential. He believed that traditional education, as then practised in his native America, was rigid, static and inadequate for the rapidly developing society and economy of the time. (The same criticism is frequently made of education today! Dewey advocated child-centred learning and stressed the importance of each individuals lived experience as a starting point for learning. Key to Deweys philosophy was the development of thinking, particularly, reflective thinking. In How We Think, he states that: Thought affords the sole method of escape from purely impulsive or purely routine action. A being without capacity for thought is moved only by instincts and appetites, as these are called forth by outward conditions and the inner state of the organism. A being thus moved is, as it were, pushed from behind. (Dewey 1933: 15) Such a person is, in other words, not in control. They are dragged along by events, unable to understand or change them. To use more up to date terminology, such a person is merely reactive, rather than active or proactive  ± things happen to them; they dont make things happen. We must, as Dewey says, move from routine action to reflective action which is characterised by ongoing self-appraisal and development. Dewey believed that reflection begins in a state of doubt or perplexity which, for teachers, is most likely to be encountered when working with THE REFLECTIVE TEACHER. Learners, particularly new or unfamiliar learners. When we are faced with difficulties and uncertainties in practice, when things dont go according to plan or dont fit with the theory, we may feel powerless and unable to resolve the situation. For, Dewey, however, these are key moments for learning; we can reflect on these problems to solve the perplexity and learn from it. E Donald Schon (1983) developed the notions of reflection in action and reflection on action. For the purposes of this book I will explain these two concepts very simply as `reflecting while youre doing it and `reflecting after youve done it. When delivering the learning you have so carefully planned and prepared, you need to be constantly aware and monitoring the session as it develops. This awareness allows you to make changes as the situation demands, to be able to `think on your feet. When the session is complete you can reflect on, analyse and evaluate the learning and teaching. This postaction reflection then informs your subsequent planning and preparation leading to a cycle of continuing improvement. We can represent the process as in Figure 1. 2. E A further development in Schons work is the distinction between technical rationality and tacit knowledge. This distinction could be characterised more E simply as the `theory-practice gap. Like Dewey, Schon believed that reflection begins in working practice, particularly those areas of practice where professionals are confronted with unique and confusing situations  ± E `the swampy lowlands of practice as Schon calls them. Teachers may have acquired the theoretical knowledge (technical rationality) of their subject or of the practice of teaching and learning, but whilst this might explain their classroom practice as it should be, it might not explain it as it actually is. From these real-life experiences teachers can develop tacit knowledge  ± a synthesis of theory and practice which they have developed for themselves. It is vital that these learning experiences are recorded in journals and discussed with mentors and fellow trainees. Trainee teachers might express the opinion that `this theory stuff is all very well, but it doesnt work in the real world. Teacher trainers may be offended by such rejections of theory, but their trainees may have a point  ± theory is only of any use when it is applied and developed in practice. The real teaching environment is where theory is applied, tested and evaluated. Theory is never used rigidly, nor does it provide all the answers to the problems teachers encounter. It is, however, the starting point for developing teaching and learning in practice. Reflection, in and on action, allows teachers to continually improve their practice and even to the development of practice-based theory. During your training, and as a result of reading this book, you will acquire a body of theoretical knowledge related to teaching and learning which you will want to apply in your learning sessions. For, example, humanist theories of teaching and learning stress the development of the whole person and the 12 TEACHING IN THE LIFELONG LEARNING SECTOR Figure 1. 2 Using reflection in and on action to improve teaching and learning. creation of a non-threatening, positive learning environment. In practice, this might not be as easy as the theory suggests. However, this does not invalidate the theory, but it does mean you will need to adapt and E experiment with it in practice. Schon calls this application and development of theory in the real world theory-in-use. The notion of reflection linking theory and practice underlies the work of Kolb and of Gibbs. The models of learning and reflection they developed are sometimes called `iterative because they are based on a repeating, but continually evolving and improving, cycle of learning. Kolb (1984) is explained in detail in the chapter on learning theory. Essentially, his Experiential Learning Theory shows a four-stage cycle of activity. These four elements are: THE REFLECTIVE TEACHER . . . . 13 concrete experience; reflection; abstract conceptualisation; Active experimentation. The learner, in this case the teacher, can begin the cycle at any point but must follow each step in order. Consider, for example, that a trainee teacher uses role play in a session (concrete experience). The role play is partially successful. The teacher reflects on the use of this learning method and considers how it could be improved and made more effective (reflection). She reads up on the use of role play and talks to more experienced colleagues and, as a result, formulates an improved version of the activity (abstract conceptualisation). The next time she plans to use role play she incorporates her new ideas into the planning (active experimentation). This leads to a new concrete experience and the repetition of the cycle. Activity Consider a recent example from your own teaching when you have tried a new method or resource. Using Kolbs four stages, consider the development of the technique in practice. Several writers on reflective practice have emphasised the importance of the teachers feelings as part of the reflective process. This fits in with the development of emotional intelligence, which is discussed later in the book. We may experience a wide range of feelings during and after our teaching  ± elation, confusion, anger, helplessness, blaming the learners  ± and it is important to recognise and reflect on them. Gibbs (1988) adds feelings to his model of `learning by doing. See Figure 1. 3 for the stages of learning in his model. Gibbss model provides key points in development, especially description, evaluation, analysis and action, which we will consider further in the section on methods of reflection. Before then we need to examine the reasons for reflective practice. Reflective practice  ± why should we do it? An obvious answer is because weve got to! However, this is not a good reason for doing it. 14 TEACHING IN THE LIFELONG LEARNING SECTOR Figure 1. 3 Gibbss model of `learning by doing. As we have already agreed, reflective practice is a professional requirement that we have to provide evidence of, usually in a journal or log. This requirement brings teachers in the lifelong learning sector up to date with other professionals, such as nurses, social workers and human resource professionals. Just as we wouldnt want to be cared for by a nurse who wasnt familiar with the latest techniques, we probably wont want to be taught by someone who doesnt know their subject or the best ways of teaching and learning. Another reason for reflective practice is because it encourages us to understand our learners and their needs and abilities. Every learner is different and there are likely to be varying interpretations of what we say and do within any group of learners. There are `different worlds within our classrooms and skilled teachers will try to see themselves as their students see them. Stephen Brookfield believes that: `Of all the pedagogic tasks teachers face, getting inside students heads is one of the trickiest. It is also the most crucial (Brookfield 1995: 92). This book is based on the principle that active learning is preferable to passive learning and that active learning requires reflection. Reflective teachers are more likely to develop reflective learners. If we practise reflection we can more effectively encourage learners to reflect on, analyse, evaluate THE REFLECTIVE TEACHER 15 and improve their own learning. These are key skills in active learning and the development of independent learners. Reflection can also help us to develop our emotional intelligence, particularly if we include a consideration of feelings as part of our reflections. The concept of emotional intelligence, developed by Daniel Goleman (1995, 1998), encourages the development of self-awareness of feelings and the recognition and management of emotions. Finally, and most importantly, reflective practice is the key to improvement. If we dont think about, analyse and evaluate our professional practice we cannot improve. Activity Empathy (see Chapter 4, `Communication and the teacher) is important in developing your reflective practice, particularly the ability to imagine what it would be like as a learner in your own class. I can well recall a staff development session in which a colleague talked to us for more than an hour. At the end of it I was extremely annoyed at just being a passive object. It was a salutary experience and made me realise what it would be like to be a student in a passive, non-stimulating environment. When youre teaching you have considerable freedom of movement and activity  ± you can stand up; sit down; walk around and, generally, direct operations. This is not usually the case for learners. Next time youre in `learner mode, at a conference or staff development session, think about how you feel. Do you feel stimulated, interested, engaged, or restless and fidgety? Would you like to move around a bit, stand up for a while, say something, do something? Reflective practice  ± how to do it Reflection is a process and an activity which teachers undertake primarily for themselves. It is not about the production of mountains of paper evidence at the behest of teacher trainers or managers  ± such `otherdirected activity becomes a chore for trainees and teachers from which they will derive little value. Reflection will, however, lead to a product  ± diary, log, PDJ  ± which will contribute to assessment and, subsequently, be used as evidence of CPD. 16 TEACHING IN THE LIFELONG LEARNING SECTOR The right mental attitude We should remember that reflection is not an end in itself; it is the starting point of becoming a reflective practitioner. For Jenny Moon reflection is used, `with the sense of saying something not so much about what a person does as what they are (Moon 1999). The basis of all reflection is a willingness to undertake the process and to value it as means of improvement and development. Reflection can be difficult, even threatening, because it forces us to be honest with ourselves and recognise not only our successes but areas where we need to improve. It makes us take responsibility for our teaching and learning. Being a reflective practitioner is like being your own observer and your own critical friend. We can refer to this willingness to reflect and develop as the `right mental attitude, without which the whole process of reflection is pointless. The professional development journal (PDJ) There are many forms of reflection and occasions on which you will reflect, but as a trainee teacher the main form of reflection will be through your reflective journal, commonly referred to as the professional development journal. Your PDJ is a written record of your experiences of, and feelings about planning, preparing and delivering teaching and learning. It will contain general accounts of learning sessions but, more importantly, will identify critical incidents which can be the basis for learning and continuing professional development (CPD). The PDJ is subjective; it is written by you and for you and gives an opportunity to conduct a dialogue with yourself. You must remember, however, that as a trainee your tutors and mentors will see the journal, so it pays not to be indiscreet or make personal comments. The journal is also a place where you can relate theory to practice. We have already established that theory is only useful if it is used, tested and evaluated in your teaching and learning. Success, or otherwise, in teaching is not just a matter of luck. It results from thorough planning and preparation, knowing your students, and reflection on, and evaluation of, your practice. You will experience the wonderful feeling you get after a class has gone well; the learners, and you, have enjoyed themselves and, above all, learned. You will also experience the depths of despair following a session which just hasnt worked, where the learners dont seem to want to learn and you just long for the end of it all. The reflective teacher uses both extremes to learn and develop. If it went well, are there general conclusions you can draw to try with other learners? Are there specific points you can use with this group again  ± remember each group of learners is THE REFLECTIVE TEACHER 17 unique and reflection helps you to get to know them and work effectively with them. After the dreadful session, you might be chastising yourself (or worse, your learners) for the failure. Neither course is appropriate. You must reflect, analyse, evaluate, learn and change. One of the most valuable functions of your PDJ is to help you identify development points for action planning. You should review your journal regularly to see if there any recurring themes which you need to pick up on for your training and development. It will be useful to summarise your journal at the end of your course. This summary can have two functions; first, you can see how far you have come since you started your training and, second, you can use it as the basis for your CPD. Remember, evidence of CPD is a requirement in getting and maintaining QTLS. Writing your PDJ Many trainee teachers in PCET worry about writing their journals  ± what form should it take; typed or handwritten; how much; how often; is it right? The main message is  ± dont worry. When it comes to journals, you cant do them wrong! There are, however, guidelines and advice to help you make them more useful and more effective. Writing and written style Writing is a very effective way to make sense of experience  ± to organise, evaluate and learn from it. Creative writing is often used as a form of therapy by which people can work things out and find solutions for problems. Cognitive behavioural therapy requires clients to recognise and write down examples of mistaken thinking and to imagine more positive scenarios  ± in other words to reflect, analyse, evaluate and, most importantly, change. It is important to get into the habit of writing and to do it as soon as possible after the event. Its a good idea to include a reflection box at the end of your session plans in which to record some immediate thoughts which will form the basis of your journal entry. When you start writing, dont spend too much time thinking about it. Let the writing flow and try to capture the experience and some critical incidents (see below). Once youve recalled the events, then you can start to learn from them. Little and often is a good rule, particularly in the early days of journal writing. You should always be regular in your journal writing habits. You might find it useful to track a particular group of learners or, perhaps, to compare groups. Your course tutors will advise you regarding how much you should write and what period of time your journal should cover. As for writing style, you should be free, spontaneous and informal. Theres no need for the impersonal, academic style; some of the best journals Ive seen 18 TEACHING IN THE LIFELONG LEARNING SECTOR are quirky and idiosyncratic. You must, however, avoid inappropriate language or too much slang or colloquialism and never make personal comments about teachers or colleagues  ± unless, of course, you are referring to their good practice. There will be times when you are frustrated and annoyed in your training or in your work. You can use your journal to get some of this out of your system, it can even be therapeutic, but you must use it as a basis for learning and development  ± extended moaning is not acceptable. In keeping with the spontaneous and informal approach you will probably write your journal by hand, but its best to check if your tutors have any preferences regarding written or word-processed documents. Some of you will prefer to type your reflections straight on to your computer, possibly using a template you have designed to suit your needs. When you are reviewing your journal its useful to highlight key points for your summary, for action plans, or as discussion points for tutorials. I have known trainees who recorded their journals on to dictation machines (digital rather than tape). This can increase the spontaneity but, obviously, necessitates transcription into written form  ± if youve got voiceactivated software this is less of a problem. Increasingly, trainees are experimenting with using blogs for their reflective journals. This provides some interesting opportunities for sharing ideas with a whole range of people and even the development of `communities of practice. Again, you must check with your tutors regarding the acceptability of this format. Communities of practice dont have to be online. You can share your reflections with fellow trainees in taught sessions or group tutorials. It can be very helpful to find that colleagues are experiencing the same uncertainties or difficulties as you and, hopefully, enjoying successes. Sharing ideas and developing strategies together is an extremely valuable collaborative activity. You may even wish to build in presentations to colleagues on particular issues. Many teachers, like many learners, have a visual learning preference and, as such will want to include diagrams, drawings or any other visual modes. I always encourage this, particularly as visuals can help you get the big picture and explore relationships between ideas. One of my former students who taught art produced a wonderful journal full of written entries, pictures, sketches, quotes and jokes  ± quite a work of art in itself. Personalise your journal by all means, but remember you will need to share it with your tutors, and possibly submit it for assessment, so be prepared to summarise and translate as necessary. More than just description The most inadequate reflections are those which merely describe what happened in a teaching and learning session. On its own, this is of no value. THE REFLECTIVE TEACHER 19 But it is a start. To the description (what happened? What sense can you make of the situation? Bring in ideas from outside the experience to help you. What was really going on? Were different peoples experiences similar or different in important ways? Conclusions: What can be concluded, in a general sense, from (general) these experiences and the analyses you have undertaken? 20 TEACHING IN THE LIFELONG LEARNING SECTOR Conclusions: (specific) Personal action plans: What can be concluded about your own specific, unique, personal situation or way of working? What are you going to do differently in this type of situation next time? What steps are you going to take on the basis of what you have learned? Critical incidents When writing your journal you will almost inevitably identify critical incidents. These are specific occurrences within teaching and learning sessions which you consider significant or important. Critical incidents may be positive or negative. They can be moments in which you suddenly become aware of a problem, or a solution to a problem; when you realise that you have a particular development need or a particular strength. They could be described as `light bulb moments when there is a particular E incident or a sudden realisation. For example, as young and naove teacher, I made what I considered to be a humorous comment about a students name. His strong, negative reaction was a critical, and memorable, incident for me when I realised that peoples names are precious to them and should be respected. You will have many critical incidents in your training and during your working life as a teacher; they are all occasions for learning. You might, for example, be faced with behavioural difficulties with learners or a refusal by one, or all, of a group to engage. You might suddenly realise that you have talked for too long and the answer is to provide a change of activity. Critical incidents will often lead to generalisable ideas and solutions which are transferable to other groups and learning situations. Layout and form of your PDJ PDJs can take many forms  ± notebook; a ring-binder with loose-leaf pages; a file on your computer  ± whatever is easiest for you. Again, you should check with your course tutors to see if they have any preferences, although generally teacher trainers avoid giving too many guidelines for PDJs, for fear of producing uniformity and stifling the students own approach. If you use a notebook, an A4 size with perforated and hole-punched pages will be the easiest to use. You can design your own template for use with wordprocessing, perhaps using categories such as: . . . description; analysis and evaluation; conclusions for future practice. THE REFLECTIVE TEACHER 21 I favour just a straightforward written narrative without too much preconceived structure which might detract from the spontaneity. A useful device has been developed by Heath (1998) which involves a splitpage or two page approach, using the left-hand side to record the description of the events and the right-hand side is used for reflection. Left-hand page Right-hand page Time/date/contextual details Description of the session Describe critical incidents Initial feelings Reflection Analysis and evaluation Reference to theory (if appropriate) Thoughts added during review or tutorials Individual learning plans (ILPs) In your work or on your teaching placements you will very likely have negotiated and used ILPs with your learners; you will be expected to do the same as a trainee on a course leading to QTLS. Your ILP can be considered as the starting point of reflection and of your CPD. It can take the form of an audit of your existing knowledge, skills, attitudes and personal qualities; to identify your strengths, and to highlight any uncertainties you have about becoming a teacher in the lifelong learning sector. It is most likely that your course tutors will provide an ILP format which you will be expected to use as an initial audit, but also as a document to refer to during tutorials and as a measure of the distance you have travelled at the end of your course. The important point is to use the ILP to kick-start your personal and professional development, not merely something you produce because youve been asked to. If you havent been provided with an ILP pro-forma, here are a few areas you might wish to consider for your development. You can develop a rating scale for these so that you can see your starting point and the distance travelled. What do you know about or how confident are you about: . . . . . . . . . the roles and responsibilities of a teacher? learning styles? planning a course? planning a session? how people learn? Skills for Life and Key Skills? communication skills? presentation skills? demonstration skills?