Thursday, October 31, 2019

Write an Ethics Paper (Answer one of the 8 questions below) Essay

Write an Ethics Paper (Answer one of the 8 questions below) - Essay Example A good example is the existence of numerous religions. In this paper I will show that that Christian approach towards dealing with ethical issues is the closest one to my moral idea. To begin with, I would like to point out that I am fascinated by one of the fundamental doctrines of Christianity: the use of non-violent force to prove one’s ideas (Trocmà © 131). It would not be a mistake to suggest that Jesus Christ Himself should be seen as the best example of this. In the course of His earthly life He did not harm a person, yet was able to establish a new, revolutionary religion. In addition to that, His thesis about the two cheeks is truly a remarkable one: it goes against the teachings of many ethical systems that were widely popular some two thousand years ago. It is my strongest belief that the decision to refrain from violence in any form is the best beginning for any interaction between people, not matter how difficult the conflict may it. Violence will never solve any problems, it will make them worse – that is exactly why Christianity teaches. It must be noted that while different religions of the past were primarily concerned with their local cultural environment, Christianity was among the earliest movements that established a platform that did not differentiate people according to their ethnic origin. Indeed, while conversion to any other religion was often connected to adoption of some elements of a different culture, Christianity urged the believers to adopt the faith in Jesus Christ as their Lord and Savior, but did not promote any particular ethnic principles. I think that this is particularly important, especially in the modern globalized world. Indeed, there is a tremendous gap between the present day and two thousand years ago, when Jesus was walking the Earth. Nevertheless, the principles that were articulated by Him fit perfectly the global community that the world is trying

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

How Does Paid Employment Affect Person's Identity Essay

How Does Paid Employment Affect Person's Identity - Essay Example The personal identity that a person creates about himself affects many aspects of his life. For instance, the way a person perceives himself affects the kind of goals that they set for themselves in life, the manner of achieving them and their view on what goals and visions are feasible (Newman 2011, 60). The way a person constructs their ‘self’ has direct implications on their motivation, self esteem, emotions and their interactions with other people of the society. This then implies that the way a person views himself affects their job performance in the work place. In order to achieve a company’s objectives, the manager should work through his employees. One way of doing this is by promoting their identity through use of motivational factors. This paper focuses on how paid employment affects a person’s identity (Elliot & Dweck 2004, 46). Identity Construction at the Work Place A study has shown that the extent of commitment that employers show to their e mployees is reflected in the employees’ commitment to the job. If the employees are satisfied with the kind of payment they receive from the company, they have no thought of seeking employment elsewhere. As such they are able to identify themselves with the company objectives and goals and easily assimilate the corporate values. Satisfaction of the employee results in job empowerment which affects their commitment to the organization. With the contemporary globalization in business management, the organization is using job redesigning and downsizing. Developments of the identity can be applied where employees who show intent desire to remain in the company and are committed to attainment of its goals are selected. Managers should therefore carry out adequate research on personal and societal identities as they influence the kind motivation that would work on the workers (Knights & Willmott 2007, 99). Paid employment instills continuance commitment in the worker. This is becau se the workers view leaving the company as an expensive move as they would lose the kind of retirement benefits that they have invested in that company. Persons work in an organization in order to satisfy their own personal needs. These needs arise from their own individual goals and also from the requirements of the societies surrounding them as it shapes their identity. Work is a part of a person‘s life which takes a major portion of his lifetime therefore its effect on identity development cannot be ignore. They spend most of their adult life in the work place. The interactions and the relationships therefore formed in the work place make up a lot of what a person becomes. It is used as a standard for self definition and meaning of life. People describe themselves and the others based on job context. The career that a person engages in is a portrayal of their own personality. People in different fields describe their work using adjectives that show the worth that they attac h to such jobs. You will find an engineer describing his work in a manner that show that they deal with interesting and adventurous activities. Doctors use words that portray the importance of their work in saving lives. All this shows that individuals get into a career with the motive of forming positive identities (Newman 2011, 35). Pathways through Which a Person Creates Positive Identity in the Work Place Research has shown that a person develops positive identity in the work place through four different pathways. The development of these pathways is influenced by a

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Japanization and Japanese Working Practices

Japanization and Japanese Working Practices Introduction Japan, a land of incredible diversity; modern yet steeped in custom; home of the friendliest of welcomes. Japanese celebrate the time of year with hanami (cherry blossom viewing) parties under the blossom trees. Japanization is the process in which Japanese culture dominates, assimilates or influences other cultures. It’s also called nippanization. Japanese style management and HRM has been selectively adapted and applied around the world. Japan has a homogenous culture and foreign immigrants are very small percentage of its population. Japanization is not accepted completely around the globe. Here we are going to examine why the spread of Japanese management is constrained by local culture and working practices with the help of a case study material. Japanization Japanese are collectivistic, where as Britain and United States people are individualistic. In-group in Britain includes only a nuclear family i.e., spouse, children and sometimes spouse’s widowed or infirm parent. In India it is a joint family includes grand parents, brothers, sisters, uncles, aunts, other relatives and close friends. But in Japan we can find an additional member in the in-group: the company for which a person works. In Hofstede’s study Japan scored 46 on individualism. On the other hand USA and UK scored 91 and 89 respectively. Japanese are very hard working. Also they have strong sense of duty and indebtedness. (Tayeb, 2005) The trade unions in Japan are company based. The companies like Toyota, Nissan and Hitachi has their own unions. In UK it is craft based. I.e. fire fighters, mine workers and teachers and so on has their unions. Indebtedness: In 2003, canon prepared to buy Mizuho shares, but later it fell into financial troubles i.e. to pay a debt to Fuji bank. Fuji bank made canon out of trouble when it fell into problems 30 years ago. Ringi method: It is a special characteristic of Japanese enterprises in decision making. In this process the written proposal will be circulated first to those who are going to be affected and then to the senior management. It is very time consuming process. So it is used for only important decision making. (Misumi, 1984). Quality circles: It is a small group activity in which blue collar and white collar workers from different departments of a company assembled voluntarily. These volunteers are trained in problem identification and problem solving techniques. It is perfectly tuned with the Japanese collectivism. Life-time employment (Nenko): Japanese HRM practices are sustained by their certain management practices such as life time employment. This obviously creates stable work environment and no fear of Unemployment. It means that employees are hired after their education and remain with the same company till their retirement. Nenko is operated by large firms. Japanese Management Kaizen philosophy: Kaizen is defined as continuous improvement that involves each and every employee from executives to labourers with managers in between them. Kaizen is a driving force and a vital tool to Japanese success. This philosophy has been implemented round the globe followed by the Japanese successful lead. It is used as a method to increase production values and improve employee morale and safety. Kaizen is taken from words ‘kai’, which means continuous and ‘zen’, which means improvement. Kaizen concept is the primary difference between how change is viewed by Japanese and in the west. Western companies reject kaizen just because of without knowing about it. American companies run by years without any change. On the other hand Japanese companies are in a state of continuous change and improvement. After World War 2, most of the Japanese companies brought new challenges everyday and moulded those challenges into progress. Displaying goals, recognition and suggestions helps to improve communication and boost morale. This is an endless process. If we do not maintain the standards it results in the â€Å"two steps forward and one step backward† effect. Only for this reason maintenance and improvement go collectively by Japanese managers. By improving standardised activities and processes, kaizen aims to eliminate waste. â€Å"People are behind our success. Machines don’t have new ideas, solve problems and grasp opportunities. Only people who are involved and thinking can make a difference. Almost every auto plant in UK and USA has the same machinery but how people are utilized and involver varies widely from one company to another. The work force gives any company its true competitive edge†. (Toyota motors-general manager) Generally Japanese managers have an easier time implementing employee suggestions than managers in the USA. Japanese managers show their willingness to  go along continuous change which contributes to following change. Making the job easier. Making the job more productive. Removing drudgery from the job. Improving product quality. Removing nuisance from the job. Saving time and cost. Making the job safer. Japanese manufacturing techniques: Japanese style of manufacturing has three interlinked parts involved in it. Flexibility Quality Minimum waste In the 1980’s, imported cars accounts for 27% of us sales. Same changes had occurred in other industries in UK and USA also. The manufacturers like motorcycles, camera, television and video equipment have disappeared by the higher quality Japanese products. Poke-a-yolk: It is purely a Japanese term which means mistake or fool proofing. Poke-a-yolk is the basis of zero quality control method used for eliminating and avoiding mistakes. Basically this technique is used in manufacturing units, hospitals, aircraft maintenance and human resources. Lean production: Lean production system is one which produces cars more cheaply with higher quality than its rivals. In 1998, ford and GM took 50% more hours to make a car than Toyota. In 2006, Toyota builds an average car within 29 hours. On the other hand GM workers took 33 hours. It’s a big improvement. Mr Cowger said, 90% of the 178 gm plants almost in 33 countries adopted the lean production system. Toyota implemented the ‘just-in-time’ manufacturing system in which suppliers sends parts daily or many times a day. Toyota develops a new model in 18 months compared to three years it takes GM. This is not Japanese companies vs. American companies; it is smart Japanese companies vs. smart American companies. The key reason why Toyota is over taking GM as the dominant car industry is its production system i.e. lean production system. In Toyota, workers grouped into teams and they are allocated to individual goals to correct mistakes. (s.steve, BBC news) Historical perspective: The origin of benchmarking There is no doubt that the art of benchmarking is originated in Japan. Simply it is defined as loaning of employees to other organisations. Benchmarking means being humble enough to acknowledge that others may be smarter, and being clever enough to learn how to become just as smart – or even smarter. The essence of benchmarking is it enables us to learn our own processes and also from others. USA, UK and other companies are benchmarking Toyota production system (TPS). It is mainly focuses on the implementation of the waste reduction tools. This system is known as ‘the Toyota way’. (Forrest breyfogle, 2008). The reasons for the failure of Japanese firms overseas: Inability to cope with larger overseas responsibilities Difficulties with new environment Personal or emotional problems Lack of technical competence Inability of spouse to adjust Japanese style management is more suitable to blue collar than white collar workers Poor communication Status difference between managers and staff Improper presentation of objectives No promotion for non-Japanese Local managers not involved in key decisions Toyota acts on overwork culture: Japanese corporate culture has been criticised in UK for being workaholic. Previously it allowed workers to work two hours overtime a month for voluntary activities such as ‘qc’, stands for quality circles. This decision came into action after a court order at the death of a 30 year old Toyota worker collapsed at the plant and died due to overwork. Public criticism has been growing on overworking culture. Toyota is best known for using ideas of employees to improve production methods and minimize costs. (BBC news, 2008) Psychological safety: Psychological safety was the root cause for the failure of Toyota concept in other countries. It is especially crucial where knowledge constantly changes, workers need to be collaborating and workers make decisions without intervention of the management. (p.gupta, 2008). Hofstede’s research: Hofstede’s framework is widely used by researchers and practitioners in the field of intercultural management. According to hofstede the differences in responses could be examined by four main factors. Power distance Uncertainty avoidance Individualism Masculinity Power distance: Power distance relates to the extent to which societies discriminates the different levels of employees in any organization i.e. how unequally the employees are treated in any company. It is the relation between blue collar and white collar workers. It should be less in order to achieve any success. In high power distance countries superiors seen to be more powerful than heir subordinates. Countries with low power distance favour a more democratic style of management. Uncertainty avoidance: It refers to the degree to which they try to avoid uncertain situations by discouraging the risk taking activities. Countries with low uncertainty avoidance will adopt flexible structures and encourage more diverse views. (Chris. B, Paul. S guy. V, 2007) Individualism: Individualism means the extent to which individuals try to merge into groups. In the usa we can find more individualism. It is to gain self-respect and personal achievement. In the contrast, collectivistic society’s people are integrated into strong groups. Masculinity: It measures the extent to which male values are dominated such as assertiveness, acquisition of money and goods and not caring for others. References: Toyota works on over work culture, Thursday, 22 may 2008 Misumi, J. (1984).’Decision making in Japanese groups and organisations’, in international year-book of organisational democracy. Volume. 2, Chichester: Wiley. Forest breyfogle,dec 10th 2008. Monir h. tayeb 2005. International human resource management, a multinational company perspective Gupta,p.’general motors and Toyota cultural differences’.

Friday, October 25, 2019

Pan-Slavism :: European Europe History

Pan-Slavism In the early nineteenth century, Slavic peoples from multiple empires in eastern and southern Europe began to pursue a movement to protect and organize Slavic culture. In 1848, this movement became more political. It gained a reputation and an attempt was made to unify all Slavic peoples. This movement became known as Pan-Slavism. Pan-Slavism appealed to many Slavs who felt nationalism towards their race. However among the Slavs, there were many different opinions. Some believed that there was a cultural, ethnic, and political connection among all Slavs. Others argued that there was no place for Pan-Slavic goals in the present empires. Above all, the cultural and political issues in the debate over Pan-Slavism were nationalism for ones race and a quest for power. In 1871 Slavs occupied most of eastern and southern Europe. The Slavs came from many nations. They populated the Austro-Hungarian, German, Russian, and the Balkan Areas of the Ottoman Empires. However as a result of their geographic diversity, there was no single language or literature for the Slavic population. Slavs were so disunited that although they shared a common nationality, there was ignorance, hatred, and oppression of each other. Slavic nationalists wanted to unify and form a free and content Pan-Slavic Empire. They believed that all Slavic peoples should maintain a close connection to one another. They were unhappy that among the Slavs, nationality came after humanity, while the opposite of this was true for other nations. In a lecture given by Bronislaw Trentowski in 1848, he stated that if he were ever a tsar, he would destroy the Ottoman and Austrian Empires, thus liberating the Slavic peoples and hence gaining their support. He would free Poland, along with every other Slav occupied country. Some people saw Pan-Slavism as the freeing of non-Russian Slavs from their Ottoman, German, and Austro-Hungarian rulers. Not everyone agreed with the intentions of Pan-Slavism. Some people did not think that that the Slavs were one nation. Karel Havlicek, a Czech journalist shared this belief. He believed that nationality was not only determined by language, but also by customs, religion, government, and way of education. In 1848, he published an article called "Slav and Czech", in which he stated that the name Slav is and should always remain a geographical name. Bulgarian poet, Christo Boter, who strongly believed that only small federations of Slavs, in accordance to location should be built, shared a similar yet different view.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Comparative Study on Consumption Patterns of Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices Essay

A drink, or beverage, is a liquid specifically prepared for human consumption. In addition to basic needs, beverages form part of the culture of human society. or any liquid suitable for drinking; â€Å"may I take your beverage order? † or A liquid to consume, usually excluding water; a drink. This may include tea, coffee, liquor, beer, milk, or soft drinks Types of beverage The various types of beverage are: †¢Alcoholic beverages †¢Non-Alcohol beverages †¢Soft drinks †¢Fruit juice †¢Hot beverages †¢Other 1. Alcoholic beverages. An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of an alcohol includes many other compounds. Alcoholic beverages, such as wine, beer, and liquor have been part of human culture and development for 8,000 years. 2. Non-alcohol beverages Non-alcoholic beverages are drinks that would normally contain alcohol, such as beer and wine but are made with less than . 5 percent alcohol by volume. The category includes drinks that have undergone an alcohol removal process such as non-alcoholic beers and de-alcohol zed wines. Non-alcoholic variants: †¢Low alcohol beer †¢Non-alcoholic wine †¢Sparkling cider 3. Soft drinks The name â€Å"soft drink† specifies a lack of alcohol by way of contrast to the term â€Å"hard drink† and the term â€Å"drink†, the latter of which is nominally neutral but often carries connotations of alcoholic content. Beverages like colas, sparkling water, iced tea, lemonade, squash, and fruit are among the most common types of soft drinks, while hot chocolate, hot tea, coffee, milk, tap water, alcohol, and milkshakes do not fall into this classification. Many carbonated soft drinks are optionally available in versions sweetened with sugars or with non-caloric sweeteners. 4. Fruit juice Juice is a liquid naturally contained in fruit or vegetable tissue. Juice is prepared by mechanically squeezing or macerating fresh fruits or vegetables without the application of heat or solvents. For example,orange juice is the liquid extract of the fruit of the orange tree. Juice may be prepared in the home from fresh fruits and vegetables using variety of hand or electric juicers. Many commercial juices are filtered to remove fiber or pulp, but high pulp fresh orange juice is a popular beverage. Juice may be marketed inconcentrate form, sometimes frozen, requiring the user to add water to reconstitute the liquid back to its â€Å"original state† 5. Hot beverages Hot beverages, including infusions. Sometimes drunk chilled. ?Coffee-based beverages ?Cappuccino ?Coffee ?Espresso ?Cafe au lait ?Frappe ?Flavored coffees (mocha etc. ) ?Latte ?Hot chocolate ?Hot cider ?Mulled cider ?Tea-based beverages ?Flavored teas (chai etc. ) ?Green tea? Pearl milk tea ?Tea ?Herbal teas ?Yerba Mate ?Roasted grain beverages ?Sanka 6. Other Some substances may either be called food or drink, and accordingly be eaten with a spoon or drunk, depending on solid ingredients in it and on how thick it is, and on preference: †¢Soup †¢Yogurt OVERVIEW OF THE INDUSTRY The beverage market is worth $55 billion worldwide. The tides are turning for many beverage categories. While the carbonated soft drink and beer categories are merely treading water with flat sales, the energy drink category is surging ahead like never before. Bottled water, ready-to-drink coffee, ready-to-drink tea and sports drinks follow close behind with substantial sales increase- drinks without added sugar, no beer, along with developments in juice drinks and dairy-based drinks, are helping to turn around sales in these categories. What follows is a category-by-category look at the state of the beverage industry, including the top brands, new products, innovations and future trendsetters. In order to be successful in the marketplace, one has to think in terms of health innovation, flavor innovation, ingredient innovation and specific age groups. These are the factors that will shape the future of the beverage industry. â€Å"Today’s consumers are concerned with overall health and wellness. As a result, there is significant impact on food and beverage purchases. Many studies have shown that consumers are as concerned with good health as they are about maintaining a high quality of life. † Do you know what type of new beverage consumers are most likely to try? Do you know where they are most likely to pick those products up? Do you know why? Beverage Industry wanted to know the answers to these questions and to delve deeper into the ever-increasing number of new product launches in the beverage market. â€Å"The soft drink industry is training people to seek out new products, even the big guys are coming out with limited-edition flavors, and consumers are beginning to see that there is more flavor activity going on in the category. Whether that really nets anybody any sales gains is another thing, but it is teaching consumers to seek out and try new products. It’s also trying to create some excitement there. † In spite of several challenges and restrictions faced by this industry, it is a ‘roll’ like never before. Customer preferences may have shifted, but they are still always on the look out for a can of ‘coke’ or a new ‘flavored’ drink to quench their thirst. INDIAN BEVERAGE MARKET The size of the Indian food processing industry is around $ 65. 6 billion, including $20. 6 billion of value added products. Of this, the health beverage industry is valued at $230 million; bread and biscuits at $1. 7 billion; chocolates at $73 million and ice creams at $188 million. The size of the semi-processed/ready-to-eat food segment is over $1. 1 billion. Large biscuits & confectionery units, Soya processing units and starch/glucose/sorbitol producing units have also come up, catering to domestic and international markets. The three largest consumed categories of packaged foods are packed tea, biscuits and soft drinks. The Indian beverage industry faces over supply in segments like coffee and tea. However, more than half of this is available in unpacked or loose form. Indian hot beverage market is a tea dominant market. Consumers in different parts of the country have heterogeneous tastes. Dust tea is popular in southern India, while loose tea in preferred in western India. The urban-rural split of the tea market was 51:49 in 2000. Coffee is consumed largely in the southern states. The size of the total packaged coffee market is 19,600 tones or $87 million. The total soft drink (carbonated beverages and juices) market is estimated at 284 million crates a year or $1 billion. The market is highly seasonal in nature with consumption varying from 25 million crates per month during peak season to 15 million during off-season. The market is predominantly urban with 25 per cent contribution from rural areas. Coca cola and Pepsi dominate the Indian soft drinks market. Mineral water market in India is a 65 million crates ($50 million) industry. On an average, the monthly consumption is estimated at 4. 9 million crates, which increases to 5. 2 million during peak season. RECENT ISSUES 1. Xtazy, another energy drink for the Indian market The Indian market for energy drinks was estimated recently to have a size of Rs 500 crore, about 90 million Euros. The market which is so far dominated by Red Bull, is attracting various new players which want to get a share in a growing business. One of the aspirants is Xtazy, an energy drink from the US. â€Å"Xtazy is the forth largest energy drink inthe US†, says Rohan Malhotra, Managing Director of R. M. Indian Liquor Pvt. Ltd. , the exclusive importer for Xtazy. Malhotra has launched Xtazy already in Eastern India, and was looking now for a distributor in the Delhi area, when FII spoke to him during IFE fair in Delhi recently. In order to take on Red Bull and get a share of 20% from their business, Malhotra wants to offer better conditions to distributors. â€Å"We provide a margin of 6-8% to a distributor, who thus can earn about Rs 6 a can†, Malhotra says. â€Å" This is more than what Red Bull offers which is only about 2 – 3 Rs per can. † Xtazy is available in cans of 350 ml, thus more than the usual 250 ml of other energy drinks, and will be priced with a MRP of Rs 85. Four variants are offered, Cranberry Blast, Sugar Free Passion Fruit-Pineapple, Orange Blast and Lime Blast. Malhotra has planned several marketing measures to promote Xtazy, like PoS actions, coupons and direct marketing in a first round, and night parties in a second round. In marketing communication, he is highlighting not only the variants, but also health effects as the USPs of Xtazy, which are derived from ancient herbs used in the drink like gingko and guarana. The extract of gingko biloba leaf has been shown to dilate blood vessels and has the ability to increase peripheral blood circulation, especially to the brain, the company writes in a leaflet. Guarana from Brasil would serve to promote weight loss by increasing the metabolic rate and reducing the appetite. Besides the US, Malhotra says, Xtazy would be marketed also in Israel, Ukraine and in Turkey and would soon be launched in China. 2. Australia-based â€Å"Aromas† launches first coffee store in India. Australia-based â€Å"Aromas,† one of the leading coffee chain shops, launched its first cafe outlet in India at Hiranandani, Powai, and Mumbai. The company also tied up with Ideal Hospitality Private Ltd (IHPL), which would own the brand in the country and south-east Asia. Jayant Mahiskar, chairman and MD, IHPL, said, â€Å"Aromas is being launched keeping in mind the true coffee connoisseurs. We aim at targeting the youth and corporate at our outlets and Powai with a mix of residential and office complexes was a natural choice. The coffee has been created from selection of the original beans and blended to suit all tastes. Aromas ensures freshness and fullness of flavor. † According to the agreement with Aromas, IHPL will pay about 1. 5% of the gross revenue earned. Further, the company has decided to invest about Rs. 50-75 crore in the next three years to expand its footprint with 99 outlets in India. 3. China rejects Coke bid to take-over major juice maker China has rejected Coca-Cola’s $2. 5 billion bid to buy a major Chinese juice maker. The purchase of Huiyuan Juice Group Ltd would have been the biggest foreign acquisition of a Chinese company to date. The proposed purchase was rejected on anti-monopoly grounds, the Chinese commerce ministry announced on its website. Coca-Cola’s bid in September prompted an outcry by nationalists who urged the government to bar foreigners from acquiring one of China’s most successful homegrown brands. Rival juice producers warned that the acquisition would give Coca-Cola too dominant a position in China’s beverage market. A Coca-Cola spokesman in Hong Kong learned of the rejection of the sale had no immediate comment. Huiyuan’s founders and major shareholders already had endorsed the sale. If Coke were to take over Huiyuan, it will dominate the soft drinks market in China, which not only hurts consumers, but also other sector participants. Huiyuan controls more than a tenth of the Chinese fruit and vegetable juice market that grew 15% last year to $2 billion. Coca-Cola has a 9. 7% share and dominates in diluted juices. According to analysts China’s ruling on Coke could cut both ways in that Chinese firms that have been making increasingly high profile acquisitions abroad may run into trouble of their own. 4. Pepsi’s Slice kicks off the new season with ‘Aamsutra’ PepsiCo’s popular mango juice drink brand- Slice kicks off the 2009 season with it’s new ‘Aamsutra’ concept. According to Homi Battiwalla, business head, juice & juice drinks, PepsiCo India, Slice had seen powerful consumer momentum post the re-launch of 2008. The new winning formulation has been appreciated by consumers. Aamsutra has driven strong disruption in the juice and juice drink category. All of this has made Slice the fastest growing mango drink brand in the country. â€Å"South India is the lead market for mango drinks in the country. Andhra Pradesh is the biggest mango market and also the fastest growing market for Slice and mango drinks in the country. Tamil Nadu is amongst the top three states and Slice is the market-leader in Tamil Nadu,† he added Pepsi has now opted for a new brand ambassador, Katrina Kaif. â€Å"The creative thought behind the new communication was to further enhance the Slice experience into dimensions of pleasure, sensuality and indulgence. Last year’s commercial was about enumerating the principles of ‘Aamsutra’ or the art of experiencing pure mango pleasure with the new Slice. This year, the commercial portrays the next level to bring alive the mango indulgence, stated Hari Krishnan, Vice President, JWT. The company has now opted for a 360 multimedia campaigns involving digital, print, radio, impact outdoors and sampling in core markets. 5. Parle Agro launches lemon flavoured drink â€Å"LMN† Parle Agro, one of the leading food & beverage companies in India, has launched a new fruit-based lemon drink LMN in the non-carbonated segment. The new brand is a natural lemon juice drink and the only brand in India with a taste closest to home made, fresh lime water (Nimbu pani). According to the company, LMN will offer consumers a healthy, refreshing drink with the goodness of vitamin C. Every summer, the Indian beverage market has seen cola majors battle it out. This summer, the launch of LMN will see the cola wars taking a back seat and the battle spilling over to the non-cola segment, to be more precise in the nimbu paani category. PepsiCo India last week launched a nimbu pani drink, Nimbooz, under the 7Up brand On the occasion of LMN’s launch, Nadia Chauhan, joint managing director and CMO, Parle Agro, said, â€Å"Nimbu pani has traditionally been India’s most commonly consumed cold beverage. In fact the idea of a branded lemon drink is so simple that you would wonder why nobody thought of it earlier. The challenge for us was packaging a natural product while retaining its fresh, original taste throughout its shelf life. † LMN will be available in 110 ml Tetra, 200 ml Tetra and 500 ml PET packs priced at Rs 5, Rs 10 and Rs 23 respectively. The company aims to touch a turnover of Rs 3000-3500 crore by 2011. The company will target both (youth and adult) segments of consumers to turn them into branded consumers of nimbu pani. Besides this LMN will also target an emerging segment of consumers who are looking for a healthy and refreshing beverage in the country. â€Å"For the last 20 years, Parle Agro has been the market leader in fruit based beverages, we have constantly worked keeping in mind Indian preferences while formulating products that cater to the Indian palate. It is without any doubt that only an Indian company can understand what real nimbu pani tastes like and what the Indian consumer wants in a packaged offering,† Chauhan added. Further, the company claims that packaged nimbu pani will have tremendous growth potential, higher than other packaged drinks mainly because of a major shift in consumer behavior. Today, the beverage consumer is looking for hygiene, convenience, refreshing taste, affordability and year-round availability. The name LMN is derived from the SMS version of the word lemon. Parle Agro also owns other fruit drink brands like Frooti, Appy Fizz and packaged drinking water, Bailey. 6. PepsiCo launches ‘Nimbooz,’ packaged lemon juice with no fizz and artificial flavours. PepsiCo India has launched its packaged nimbu paani, Nimbooz, under its 7Up brand. The home-made nimbu paani or lime juice has been specially created to suit Indian tastes. The lemon juice, no fizz and artificial flavours, is available in trendy, convenient packs. The drink offers great value to consumers in three packaging formats of 200 ml returnable glass bottles (RGB), 350 ml PET and 200 ml Tetra attractively priced at Rs 10, Rs 15 and Rs 10, respectively. According to Ms Punita Lal, Executive Director- Marketing, PepsiCo India, Nimbooz, is specially developed to suit Indian tastes and preferences. â€Å"Nimbooz is an affordable offering for consumers on the go because of its ready-to-drink format that is both convenient and hygienic. The proposition of the Indian refresher perfectly captures the mass appeal of this product and will certainly drive consumer connect, stated Ms Alpana Titus, Executive VP-Flavours, PepsiCo India. PepsiCo has drawn up an intensive consumer activation campaign to market Nimbooz. The 360 degree marketing communication plan will revolve around building awareness through multi-city launches and road shows, comprehensive 3D activation, leveraging Out-of-Home (OOH) media, radio, press and outdoors. Aggressive trial generation and sampling initiatives will also be taken forward across major cities of the country. A special ‘Nimbooz Highway Gadi’ has been created that will visit the four major highways connecting Delhi to Jaipur, Dehradun, Agra to drive trails and consumer education. 7. Coke launches fruit-flavoured Fanta Apple nationally After successfully introducing it in southern markets last year, Coca-Cola India has launched its fruit-flavoured soft drink ‘Fanta Apple’ nationally. The product is available in 200 ml and 300 ml returnable glass bottles and also in 500 ml PET pack priced at Rs 8, Rs 10 and Rs 22 respectively. During the Fanta Apple launch in October 2008, Venkatesh Kini, marketing vice-president, Coca-Cola India, said that the company had planned to reach about 3. 5 lakh customers with sample apple flavoured drink to extend its market leadership in the fruit flavoured segment in Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. â€Å"As per consumer research, we have found that after orange, apple is the most preferred fruit in the country and Fanta Apple has been developed specially for the Indian palate,† Kini said on Monday. According to experts, the nationwide launch of Fanta Apple is a part of the company’s $250 million business plan for the country. Fanta Apple is the second flavour after Fanta Orange under â€Å"Fanta† brand of the company. â€Å"We have had an excellent response down south with a reused value to the drink and with the national launch of Fanta Apple, we are stepping stones to extend Coca Cola India’s market leadership in the fruit-flavoured sparkling drink segment,† Kini added. The company has also announced Bollywood actress Genelia D’Souza as the new brand ambassador of the Fanta brand. According to reports, the current expected Indian soft drink market is about Rs 6,000 crore, in which the company shares about 50% market with its various brands like Coke, 7 Up, Fanta, Sprite and Thums Up. STUDY OF GROWTH OF SOFT DRINK MARKET SOFT DRINKS Carbonated drinks are dominated by artificial flavors based on cola, orange and lime with Pepsi and coca-cola dominating the market. The entire part of the drin. †¢Cola products account for nearly 61-62% of the total soft drinks market. †¢Two global majors’ Pepsi and coke dominate the soft drink market. †¢NCAER survey says 91% of soft drink in the country is in the lower, lower middle and upper middle class people. †¢The market is worth around Rs. 5000 crores with growth rate of around 10-15%. †¢The annual per capita consumption in India is only about 6 bottles vis- a- Vis 340 bottles in the U. S. †¢The production as soft drinks has increased from 5670 million bottles in 1998-99 to 6230 million bottles in 1999-2000 industry source. †¢Growth market this year is expected to be 10-15% in value terms and 20-22% in volume terms. However, the market for carbonated drinks is stagnating and not growing as expected. MAJOR PLAYERS IN SOFT DRINKS SEGMENT COCA COLA: thanda matlab coca cola!!! Coca cola has truly remarkable heritage. From a humble beginning in 1886 it has now become the flagship brand of largest manufacturer, distributor of non alcoholic beverages in the world. In India, coca cola was the leading soft drink till 1977 when govt. policies necessitated its departure. Coca cola has made its return to the country in 1993. and made significant investment to ensure that the beverage is available to more and more people in remote as well as inaccessible parts of the world. Coca cola returned to India in 1993 and over the past ten years has captured the imagination of the nation, building strong association with cricket, the thriving cinema industry, music etc. coca cola has been very strongly associated with cricket, sponsoring the world cup in 1996. In 2002, coca cola launched the campaign,†Thanda Matlab coca cola†. in 2003,coke was available for just rs,5 crores in the country. FANTA : GHOONTH BHAR SHARARAT KAR LEY!!! Fanta entered the Indian market in year 1996 under the coca cola brand . over the years, Fanta has occupied a strong market place and is identified as â€Å"the fun catalyst†. Fanta stands for its vibrant color, tempting taste and tingling bubbles that not just uplifts feelings but also helps free spirit thus encouraging one to indulge in the moment. LIMCA: LIME AND LEMONI!!! Drink that can cast a tangy refreshing spell on anyone, anywhere. Born in 1971, Limca has been the original thirst choice, of millions of consumers for over three decades. The brand has been displaying healthy volume growing year on year and limca continues to be leading flavoring soft drinks in the country. Dive into the zingy refreshment of limca and walk away a new person. SPIRITE: SPIRITE BHUJAYE PYAAS BAKI SAB BAKWAAS!!! World wide sprite ranked as no. 4 soft drink and is sold in more than 190 countries In India, sprite was launched in year 1999 and today it has grown to be one of the fastest growing soft drinks, leading clear lime category. Today sprite is perceived as a youth icon. With strong appeal to youth sprite has stood for a straight forward and honest attitude. Its clear crisp hingtaste encourages today’s youth to trust their instincts, influence them to be true who they are and to obey their thirst. THUMS UP: TASTE THE THUNDER!!! Strong cola taste, exciting personality. Thums up is a leading carbonated soft drink and most trusted brand in India. Originally introduced in 1977, thums up was acquired by the coca cola company in 1993. Thums up, is, known for strong, fizzy taste and its confident, mature and uniquely masculine attitude. This brand clearly seeks to separate the man from the boys. MAAZA: YAARI DOSTI TAAZA MAAZA!!! Maaza was launched in 1976. In 1993, maaza was acquired by coca cola India. Maaza currently dominates the fruit drink category. Over the years, maaza has become synonymous with mango. â€Å"Taaza Mango, Maaza mango, Botal mei aam, maaza hai naam†. consumers regard maaza as wholesome, natural, fun loving drink real experience of fruit. The campaign builds on the existing equity of the brand and delivers a relevant emotional benefit to the moms rightly captured in tagline, â€Å"yaari dosti, and taaza maaza†. PEPSI: YEH DIL MAANGE MORE!!! Pepsi cola is a carbonated beverage that is produced and manufactured by Pepsi co. It is sold in stores, restaurants and from vending machines. The drink was first made in the 1890’s in North Carolina. The brand was trademarked on June 16, 1903. There have been many Pepsi variants produced over the years. †¢Diet Pepsi †¢Crystal Pepsi †¢Pepsi twist †¢Pepsi max †¢Pepsi samba †¢Pepsi blue †¢Pepsi gold †¢Pepsi holiday spice †¢Pepsi jazz †¢Pepsi x(available in Finland & brazil) †¢Pepsi next(available in Japan & south Korea) STUDY OF GROWTH OF FRUIT DRINK MARKET FRUIT JUICES Branded fruit juice market in India holds an immense potential. Usually confused and considered synonymous with non-aerated drinks, fruit pulps, juices and squash are high sugar beverages, which are centrifuged and filtered to give a semi- clear appearance. In the past, this sector enjoyed an excise exemption, keeping cost at minimal. However the withdrawal of exemption has inflated costs and can affect growth, with dramatic change possible on reintroduction of excise exemption. MARKET †¢The organized fruit beverage market is estimated at Rs. 500 crores market. (Nectars, drinks and juices combined). †¢The market has grown at a 20% to 25% rate. †¢Of this, more expensive juices segment has grown at rate of 40%this year. It accounted for only 15% of the fruit beverage 3 years back. †¢In –home consumption of juices has gone up from 30%, three years back to 80%today. †¢Mango based drinks account for two thirds of fruit drinks industry. MAJOR PLAYERS IN THE FRUIT DRINK SEGMENT DABUR REAL Dabur’s flagship brand real fruit juice is a market leader in packaged fruit juice category. Real was launched in 1996 and the brand has carved a niche for itself by claiming to be the only fruit juice in packaged form . i. e. 100%preservative free. Real, with market share of 57% comes in nine flavors: †¢Orange †¢Mango †¢Pineapple †¢Mix fruit †¢Grape †¢Guava †¢Litchi †¢Tomato †¢Cranberry Real Active is 100%fruit juice with no added sugar and is available in following variants: †¢Orange †¢Apple †¢Orange- carrot GODREJ The food division of godrej industry produces and market fruit drinks, fruit nectar and sofit soymilk. Godrej’s brand JUMPIN comes in the following flavor: †¢Mango †¢Pineapple †¢Apple †¢Litchi †¢Orange Godrej’s x’s is a range of fruit nectar with more fruits. It’s available in following flavors: †¢Orange †¢Apple †¢Grape PEPSI’S TROPICANA. Tropicana brand fruit juice enjoys a market share of 25% and has registered a double digit growth and has outpaced the growth of fruit juice market in India. It is available in following flavors: †¢Orange †¢Apple †¢Grape †¢Cranberry LEH BERRY It is a product from Ladakh Foods. Its first fruit juice in Delhi and it’s selling it in the more affluent parts of town. It enjoys a market share of 4% and is available in a variety of flavors: †¢Pineapple †¢Apple †¢Mixed fruit †¢Orange †¢Blackcurrant †¢Mango †¢Guava PARLE’S FROOTI and APPY Frooti was launched back in 1985 and enjoys market dominance with 85% of market share. Parle’s Agro’s APPY, in 1996 had a market share of 5% in the fruit drink segment; in 2003 its new variant-APPY FIZZ was launched. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY METHODOLOGY Every project work is based on certain methodology, which is a way to systematically solve the problem or attain its objectives. It is a very important guideline and lead to completion of any project work through observation, data collection and data analysis. According to Clifford Woody, â€Å"Research Methodology comprises of defining & redefining problems, collecting, organizing &evaluating data, making deductions &researching to conclusions. † Accordingly, the methodology used in the project is as follows: – Defining the objectives of the study Framing of questionnaire keeping objectives in mind (considering the objectives) Feedback from the respondents Analysis of feedback Conclusion, findings and suggestions. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY The main aim of this research study is to analyze the preference of people (of different age groups) on consumption patterns of Soft Drinks and Fruit Juices. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY †¢To study the preferences of the people for soft drinks and fruit juices. †¢To find out the factor(s) that influences the consumer’s consumption of soft drinks and fruit juices. †¢To test the know-how of the consumers regarding the various existing brands of soft drinks and fruit juices. †¢To explore the next best beverage after soft drinks and fruit juices. †¢To find out how the beverage is positioned in the mind of the consumers. SCOPE OF THE STUDY †¢This study is confined to the North West Delhi region covering areas of Paschim Vihar, Pitam Pura, Rohini area, Punjabi Bagh. †¢Seasonal drinks are not considered in the study. †¢We are considering only canned juices. †¢We are not considering water & alcoholic drinks. RESEARCH DESIGN A research design is a framework or blueprint for conducting the marketing research project. It specifies the details of the procedures necessary for obtaining the information needed to structure and/or solve marketing research problem. On the basis of fundamental objectives of the research we can classify research design into two general types: EXPLORATORY RESEARCH CONCLUSIVE RESEARCH Exploratory research is one type of research design, which has its primary objective the provision of insights into, and comprehension of, the problem situation confronting the researcher. Conclusive research is designed to assist the decision maker in determining evaluating and selecting the best course of action to take in a given situation. Conclusive research can be further divided into two types:- †¢Descriptive †¢Experimental The research design used in this project is a DESCRIPTIVE DESIGN. Descriptive study as the name implies is designed to describe something-for example the characteristics of users of a given product, the degree to which the product use the varies with income, age, etc. SAMPLING TECHNIQUE USED: This research has used convenience sampling technique. 1) Convenience sampling technique: Convenience sampling is used in exploratory research where the researcher is interested in getting an inexpensive approximation of the truth. As the name implies, the sample is selected because they are convenient. SELECTION OF SAMPLE SIZE: For the study, a sample size of 100 has been taken into consideration. SOURCES OF DATA COLLECTION: Research will be based on two sources: 1. Primary data 2. Secondary data 1) PRIMARY DATA: Questionnaire: Primary data was collected by preparing questionnaire and the people were randomly being requested to fill them. 2) SECONDARY DATA: Secondary data will consist of different literatures like books which are published, articles, internet and websites. In order to reach relevant conclusion, research work needed to be designed in a proper way. STATISTICAL TOOLS USED The main statistical tools used for the collection and analyses of data in this project are: †¢Questionnaire †¢Pie Charts †¢Bar Diagrams DATA ANALYSIS & FINDINGS Q1. What do you prefer to drink? (Tick any 1) Particulars No. of RespondentsPercentage Soft Drinks5757% Fruit Juices4343% Total100100% Q2. Frequency of consumption of your preferred drink in a week? SOFT DRINKS Particulars No. of RespondentsPercentage. Daily2849% 2-6 times2340% Above 7611% Total57100% FRUIT JUICES Particulars No. of RespondentsPercentage Daily1023% 2-6 times3070% Above 737% Total43100% Q3. On what occasions, do you often consume the Soft Drinks? Particulars No. of RespondentsPercentage Feeling Thirsty1818% Parties / Celebrations4545% Without any reason (just like that)2525% Others1212% Total100100% Q4. On what occasions, do you often consume the Fruit Juices? Particulars No. of RespondentsPercentage Feeling Thirsty1717% Parties / Celebrations3232% Without any reason (just like that)2424% Others2727% Total100100% Q5. What induces you to buy Soft Drinks? Particulars No. of RespondentsPercentage Price with quantity3030% Health Drink 44% Status symbol 88% Taste3232% Variety2626% Total100100% Q6. What induces you to buy Fruit Juices? Particulars No. of RespondentsPercentage Price with quantity1313% Health Drink 4040% Status symbol 1515% Taste2222% Variety1010% Total100100% Q7. If not a Soft Drink or a Fruit juice, which other beverage (other than water) tops your mind? Particulars No. of RespondentsPercentage Coffee3030% Tea2525% Shakes(Milk/Ice cream/Fruit)88% Lassi1212% Sharbat2525% Total100100% Q8. How do you rate canned juices as compared to fresh juices? Particulars No. of RespondentsPercentage Equivalent to fresh juices 2424% Have artificial added flavor 3636% Healthy with preservatives 4040% Total100100% Q9. How do you view Soft Drinks? Particulars No. of RespondentsPercentage As a health drink44% As a status symbol88% As an aid to put off thirst5555% Any other3333% Total100100% Q10. How do you view Fruit Juices? Particulars No. of RespondentsPercentage As a health drink4040% As a status symbol1515% As an aid to put off thirst3232% Any other1313% Total100100% Q11. Do advertisements affect your purchases? Particulars No. of RespondentsPercentag.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Quality Measure

In order to initiate the Frequent Shopper Program three important steps must be taken. Quality assurance process and procedures to ensure the functionality and performance requirements are met second, testing procedures to ensure the application is operational at all levels this includes programming networking, systems and interfaces third, implementation steps and procedures necessary to achieve operational status.This paper is to maintain and produce a product that is high level quality which will be a critical factor in the production of a successful software system and will remain so during the entire project. Software Development Life Cycle comprises Software Requirement Analysis, System Analysis and Design, Code Generation, Testing, Maintenance and Quality Assurance. Our Quality Assurance process is a part of Software Development Life Cycle. (Rainbow, 2008) (Rainbow, 2008) Quality assurance is not a one man job it takes a team to make sure everything is done correctly.An organi zational structure of the quality team will be developed. Once a team has been created policies will be designed in order to provide structure where positions, roles, responsibility will be created in order for a positive operation and organization. This will establish a chain of command in order to make the objective affective. Effective method for monitoring quality assurance because it analyzes existing conditions and methods used to provide the product or service customers. The goal is to ensure that excellence is inherent in every component of the process.Quality assurance also helps determine whether the steps used to provide the product or services are appropriate for the time and conditions. (Wise Geek, 2011) Second will be defining a quality assurance process, the quality assurance manager (Todd Albright) for Kudler Frequent Shopper Program will be responsible for overseeing all three Kudler Locations and each QA member will be assigned to a specific location and the QA tas ks and will be referred to as external while the individual quality of work will be known as external.The external quality assurance tasks will include the following; maintaining the QA documents, ensures verification occurs and is logged, preparation for attendance of all inspections, inspect any audits, post unit testing, the development team is provided input from the activities of the QA, and the software engineering team are assigned any defects repair. The external team will be responsible for their individual work and maintaining their own databases and unit testing including metrics. Metrics are numerical measures that quantify the degree to which software or a process possesses a given attribute.Examples of metrics are ‘‘defects per thousand lines of code’’ and ‘‘average software module size. ’’ Metrics are collected and analyzed throughout the software life cycle, and help with the following: Determining software quality level Estimating project schedules Tracking schedule progress Determining software size and complexity (University of Phoenix 2010) Documentation will also be produced during the project this will consist of any software design documents, test documents, verification and validation plans and software configuration plans.Todd Albright who has been assigned as the QA manger will overlook the QA organization team members and will be able to approve any quality assurance function performed. Todd Albright will also ensure that coding standards will meet guidelines which will be no more than 2 defects per every 1000 lines and to ensure meetings, audits, reviews will be conducted twice a month to ensure the quality of the software. In addition to provide quality processes the QA teams will provide independent testing while educating the engineers for internal quality and will work closely with the project managers to ensure a successful development.The final goal for quality assurance will be to have no critical or any serious defects, the design will have no more than one defect a diagram, the code will consists of less than two defects per 1000 lines of non commented coding. To ensure the software is working four different types of testing will be done; unit testing, integration testing, system testing and use integration testing. Unit testing will be conducted by the programmers who developed the code of the program making sure there are no errors this will help determine to see if the software is doing what is meant for.Unit testing provides some undeniable advantages. It allows for automation of the testing process, reduces difficulties of discovering errors contained in more complex pieces of the application, and test coverage is often enhanced because attention is given to each unit. (MSDN, 2011) The next step in testing the Frequent Shopper program is the integration testing, this will test two different units that have already passed the unit testing to see if they will work together. The approach that will be used will be the top-down approach which requires the highest level modules be tested first.This will ensure a high data flow and be tested early in the process rigorously this way it meets the quality standards.. The third step that will be conducted is the system test which will be conducted by the testing team it will cover any cases and scenarios, the technical requirements, specifications and making sure it meets the business and functional requirements. System Testing is a crucial step in Quality Management Process. * In the Software Development Life cycle System Testing is the first level where The System is tested as a whole The System is tested to verify if it meets the functional and technical requirements *The application/System is tested in an environment that closely resembles the production environment where the application will be finally deployed *The System Testing enables us to test, verify and validate both the Business requirements as well as the Application Architecture (Exforsys Inc, 2011) Once final testing has started the final stage can be conducted which is implementing the project into plan.The maintenance team will correct any errors during the implementation phase and provide user end support if needed during the implantation phase, the program will be reviewed by the QA manager making sure all the objectives for the project plan have been implemented, and are running as they should be.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Free Essays on Gender Relations In Science Fiction

GENDER RELATIONS IN SCIENCE FICTION In today’s world, many different mediums exist whereby ideas and beliefs can be communicated to the public; however, writing continues to be one of the most common forms. Writing can be subdivided into different categories depending on the type of message that is being conveyed. For instance, the use of science fiction creates virtually limitless boundaries, thus allowing the writer to explore various themes. This flexibility, however, does not make science fiction an effective medium for conveying certain ideas. Preconceived notions always exist based on a person’s environmental development, and these notions affect the way in which a person interprets ideas. In the stories of The Left hand of Darkness, The Women Men don’t see and A Few things I know about Whileaway, science fiction fails to become a medium that challenges the typical gender roles that all readers have instilled in their minds. Although the genre of science fiction can create any surreal f orm of society, it is not an effective medium through which concepts of sexual characteristics can be challenged because pre-existing notions of gender roles that are present in the minds of each reader cannot permit such understanding. Readers can be effectively introduced to various concepts in a story through the use of a narrator. The narrator serves as a guide for the reader by offering explanations and introducing new ideas from his/her unique viewpoint. The observations from this viewpoint give a concise presentation of gender relations in each story, however, the traditional perceptions of gender remain intact and unchallenged since each perspective is derived from a character/narrator with preconceived notions. The Left Hand of Darkness is narrated almost exclusively by an envoy named Genly Ai who is sent to the planet Gethen by the Ekumen of known worlds with the mission of convincing the Gethenian leaders to join the In... Free Essays on Gender Relations In Science Fiction Free Essays on Gender Relations In Science Fiction GENDER RELATIONS IN SCIENCE FICTION In today’s world, many different mediums exist whereby ideas and beliefs can be communicated to the public; however, writing continues to be one of the most common forms. Writing can be subdivided into different categories depending on the type of message that is being conveyed. For instance, the use of science fiction creates virtually limitless boundaries, thus allowing the writer to explore various themes. This flexibility, however, does not make science fiction an effective medium for conveying certain ideas. Preconceived notions always exist based on a person’s environmental development, and these notions affect the way in which a person interprets ideas. In the stories of The Left hand of Darkness, The Women Men don’t see and A Few things I know about Whileaway, science fiction fails to become a medium that challenges the typical gender roles that all readers have instilled in their minds. Although the genre of science fiction can create any surreal f orm of society, it is not an effective medium through which concepts of sexual characteristics can be challenged because pre-existing notions of gender roles that are present in the minds of each reader cannot permit such understanding. Readers can be effectively introduced to various concepts in a story through the use of a narrator. The narrator serves as a guide for the reader by offering explanations and introducing new ideas from his/her unique viewpoint. The observations from this viewpoint give a concise presentation of gender relations in each story, however, the traditional perceptions of gender remain intact and unchallenged since each perspective is derived from a character/narrator with preconceived notions. The Left Hand of Darkness is narrated almost exclusively by an envoy named Genly Ai who is sent to the planet Gethen by the Ekumen of known worlds with the mission of convincing the Gethenian leaders to join the In...

Monday, October 21, 2019

Superheros essays

Superhero's essays Although there are many superhero's, they are all very unique in their own special ways. I will try to compare three of these hero's Spiderman, Superman and Batman. When they were originally conceived, only Superman was born with special powers such as super human strength, the speed of a locomotive and being able to leap skyscrapers. Batman needed to work and use his intellect to gain his strength. Spiderman was involved in a scientific experiment that went wrong. This is how he gained his strength his powers. Comparing Superman and Batman, Superman has much greater powers then Batman. He should because he comes from another planet, Krypton. While Batman is a human being born on earth. Superman was born with his amazing powers and sent to earth on a rocket when his planet was in trouble. Superman was very visible and a hero in every sense of the word. Batman on the other hand was somewhat secretive and did most of his fighting of villains, in the shadows of darkness, trying not to be seen. Spiderman was a normal high school boy who was doing an experiment with radiation in science class when a spider was radiated and bit him giving him the strength and abilities of a spider. Batman witnessed his parents being murdered and used his inherited wealth, intellect and hard work to gain his strength and invent his suit and gadgets to fight his enemies. Spiderman also used his knowledge to invent gadgets such as his web throwers which he could swing from place to place on. Both Spiderman and Batman were born on earth and were human. Although all three hero's fought against evil villains. I feel Spiderman and Batman were closer in comparison. Not only did they need to develop their own powers, and invent their weapons. While Superman was born with his. They were both human, born on earth to loving and wonderful families. Superman was born on the planet Krypton and sent to earth, luckily he was found and adopted by a ...

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Should the Number of Passengers Be Limited in Cars Driven by Teens

Should the Number of Passengers Be Limited in Cars Driven by Teens The article is about the importance of limiting the number of passengers in the cars driven by teens. Driving is quite liberating, a rite of passage for most American teenagers. It means  freedom  from parental oppression, is a way for an adolescent to have some of the responsibilities of an adult. Most teens get their driver’s license around 16 or 17 years old, during their sophomore and junior years of  high school. Teens spend hours after school, nights on the weekends, driving around with their friends. It’s a major part of their lives, with social, even spiritual, implications. However, though it’s a major part of the adolescent experience, it’s still taken for granted – not just the privilege, but dangerousness of it. And it’s because of this that the number of passengers should be limited to just two people in cars driven by minors, one of which being a licensed drivers, as well. TV HAS A NEGATIVE IMPACT ON TEENAGERS Why just two passengers in teen-driven cars? First of all, adolescent drivers just aren’t experienced enough drivers to ride around with a car packed full of other people, especially other teens. It’s too distracting for them. They aren’t thinking about safety, about a safe-driving speed, aggressive drivers on the road, etc. What’s on their minds? Popularity, looking cool and having fun are important to them – teens think they’re invincible. There are not anticipating the unexpected – a deer in the road, a drunk driver, an accident up the road. Any teen driver is too self-absorbed to think that when they are driving a car, they are at the wheel of a loaded weapon capable of taking the lives of others. They just aren’t thinking of these things. It’s not important to them. They just don’t yet have the driving experience. A federal law should be put in place limiting the number of passengers in teen-driven cars to just two for one more important reason: With fewer drivers in a car, there are fewer distractions. Teens are notorious for spending too much time on their iPhones, totally ignoring everyone and everything else around them. They don’t have the attention span to safely drive a car full of other people; and if that car is filled with loud, self-absorbed attention-seeking teens, it’s even harder for a teen driver to focus on what is important: driving safely to a destination, protecting its passengers. And that is virtually impossible when there are too many people in a car driven by an adolescent. Not only should teen-driven cars be limited to just two passengers, a licensed driver, regardless of their age, should always be in the car with a teen driver unless they are driving in the car alone. This way, that licensed passenger can help the young, inexperienced driver as a passenger – aiding them in paying attention, stopping when necessary, and when to ignore rowdy, distracting drivers. Licensed drivers also use their own experience, even if limited, to get the car safely to its destination. And this notion of legally mandating a licensed driver to ride as a passenger in a teen-driven car holds the driver more responsible – it holds them to a higher standard, because they realize this passenger, the licensed driver, will be watching them and keeping them focused, which will most likely make the teen driver a better, safer, more attentive and mindful driver. WHY MISSING A CLASS IS A BAD IDEA Let’s conclude this argument, that the number of passengers should be limited to two people total in cars driven by minors, one of which being a licensed driver. It should be no other way, potentially legally enforced in every American state. Repercussions should be extreme, as to scare young drivers into obeying the law and realizing that a car is a weapon when not driven responsibly and safely. Of course, several teen drivers are assuredly good drivers with a good perspective, who are responsible and mindful of how dangerous driving truly is. But the majority of teens do not, to the full extent, realize the potential disasters that come with driving, consequences that too often lead to premature death and serious injury. And if teen drivers are limited to just two passengers at a time, one of which being a licensed driver, then driving-related accidents will lessen, and the road will be a better, safer place for people to travel.

Saturday, October 19, 2019

Quantitative Analysis of a Glucose Solution Essay

Quantitative Analysis of a Glucose Solution - Essay Example The coordinates (0.318, 0.2), (0.519, 0.4), and (0.755, 0.6) are plotted on a graph. The line of best fit cuts the absorbance of 0.250 at a point y. The y-reading of the point y gives the concentration of unknown solution. A line of best fit gives y=0.14. Thus the unknown concentration = 0.14mM. A straight line of best fit of the plotted points gives the standard curve upon which concentration of the substance in the solution is determined. The Blank cuvette is a tiny test tube with a diameter of about 12mm and length of 100mm that holds solutions containing all experimental constituents except the substance under investigation. In this case, the Blank cuvette contains all the other components other than the substance with absorbance of 0.250. The Blank is a cocktail containing specific concentrations of buffer, ABTS/HRP stock and glucose oxidese stock (Bongler, 2012) Quantitative test of glucose is useful in monitoring level of diabetes. Glucose is a major energy source for most body cells. Diabetes is manifested by hyperglycemia. Through quantitative test of glucose in the blood, health practitioners are able to determine the extent of inability of one’s body to produce insulin. Thus, quantitative tests of glucose helps nullify the chances of further diabetic complications. In constructing the standard curve, the line of best fit is used because it reflects the substance concentration-absorbance mean. It conveys the coordinates of the variables that best provide the approximate concentration of the substance under study. In the experiment, a point (0.250, y) gives the solution of concentration of glucose, where y=unknown glucose concentration. If the unknown sample had a reading that was too high and went off the scale despite doing all the measurements and procedure correctly, it is imperative to consider the count of readings that have gone off-scale. If the number of unreasonable readings is few, the investigator assumes them in

Friday, October 18, 2019

Will be doing a video essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Will be doing a video - Essay Example Being such, I would know which area of study I should work harder to become better in my practice. This pursuit of becoming better as a nurse by pursuing a Master’s Degree does not only improves the prospect of my career in the long run but also makes me a more effective, compassionate nurse and in a way, an instrument that improve and make people’s lives better. This is consistent with Georgetown University’s mission of â€Å"promoting health and well-being for all people, with its emphasis on preparing students to be morally reflective health care leaders and scholars† which to my understanding is to genuinely care for people’s health and well-being as well improving myself as a nurse. I anticipate that the academic environment at Georgetown University will be rigorous considering that it is one of the best universities in the world in the field of nursing. This however for my own good because those rigorous training will make me a better

Unionization in the United States Research Paper

Unionization in the United States - Research Paper Example The most vibrant unions in the United States are usually among the public sector workers including doctors, teachers, police etc. They often targets on issues relating to the agreement and right on wages and increment on wages or if management tends to violate the laws and agreement on the rights of employees according to the contract. History of unionization in the United States: As the United States very rapidly developed various inventions and innovations, so it developed quite fast. Soon the State had been converted from a mere agricultural to a big industrial state. This change in the United States awakened the need for more and more laborers to handle the industries. these laborers were those people who were usually looked down upon in the society and the strong and powerful employers would advantage from the condition of the poor laborers and therefore, would mistreat them and take extra work, beyond their physical capabilities. Therefore, this is how the labor unions started to form so as to stand against the management to give the required right of the co-worker. Moreover, there even was a wage-bargain issue and above all, the major issue which was considered by workers at that time was the prolonged work hours which would result in workers making endless and extremely tiring efforts. The labor unions in the United States started as a protest against the long working hours. The working hours would not at all be convenient and hence this fact was realized in the 19th century and a step towards a protest was taken in the 1820s. During this period, the workers combined together to form a team to reduce the work hours from 12 hours to 10 working hours. Legislation to these workers was granted in 1837. Formation of the first labor union in the United States: According to the Illinois labor History society, after imposing this law, even then the employers would take extra work and wrong advantage of their desperate workers. The workers were poor and quite weak in power as compared to their highly strengthened employers. They realized they could not do anything alone. Therefore the minor labor unions of small cities decided to combine with the labor unions of other cities as well and form a large labor union. This is how the first labor union came into being in 1886. The first labor union was named as the â€Å"National Labor Union† (NLU). Formation of other labor unions in the United States: The working hours had now been reduced to 10 hours from 12 hours. Even this decrease was not enough for them, so, in 1886, the Nation Labor Union campaigned to reduce the work hours to a more convenient, manageable and less tiring 8 work hours. Then onwards, now labor groups started to fo rm in that era. These new labor unions included: â€Å"Knights of Labor†. â€Å"American Federation of Labor† (AFL). The founder of American federation labor was Samuel Gompers. Devaluation of the labor unions and their protest against it: As the Industrial Revolution came into soaring mechanism, the requirement for laborers once more amplified. This period was also noticeable by mass colonization numbers, which enlarged the number of laborers in the labor group. This also caused the value of the individual worker to diminish. This was due to some of the laborers, who were unskilled or not deserving were allowed to be replaced by the hard working and the

Corporate Annual Reports Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Corporate Annual Reports - Essay Example Some landmark events such as acquisitions or additional issue of stocks also find a place in these reports. The stock market crash of 1929 resulted in stringent standards applied to the preparation of Annual Reports. Hence the report has to be audited by a qualified accounting professional. The auditors role is to check for any intentional or accidental errors in the companys accounts and give his/her stamp of approval if they are found truthful. In some countries it is mandatory for all publicly held companies to distribute their annual report to all shareholders. In addition to the annual report, shareholders can find more information about the corporation in their "10k" and "10Q" reports. 10K report is a detailed document on the corporations services, products, market share, competition, industry, its customer base, etc. On the other hand the 10Q report gives an elaborate analysis of the companys quarterly earnings. These documents are made easily accessible through the Security and Exchange Commissions website. There are three important financial components to annual reports. They are the Income Statement, Balance Sheet and the Cash Flow Statement. Apart from these major financial components, other information of interest is also included. For example, the Chairmans Address to the Shareholders, Highlighting of major achievements over the year, Managements assessment of the year, an auditors note and a summary of all financial information. Having said this, there is no universally accepted format for annual reports. This gives opportunity for corporations to show an impressive set of numbers, the reality of which can be deciphered only by reading the fine print. For example, some companies see annual reports as a marketing tool that projects the company in a kinder light. So much so that many corporations allocate huge quantities of money in adding frills to their annual reports, making the information look more

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Reconstructing gender Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Reconstructing gender - Essay Example The concept of sexual schizophrenia has neutralized the demeaning male attitude towards women due to the female gender’s engagement in sports. Women are currently not viewed as objects of sexuality since they have gripped a stable position in the modern society by playing equal roles as their male counterparts. As a result, women are not only viewed as cheerleaders in sports but actual players in every sporting competition (Disch, 2008). Women tend to have different reactions towards the alleged male attitude towards sexuality. Most women in the youth age consider the male attitude towards them as an appraisal while those in the mature age find it diminishing. As a woman, Sabo’s description of male sexuality is true since women are viewed as stereotypes of the physical concept of sexuality. Pornography is the overt presentation of sexual acts in films as well as printed material. Robert Jensen provides his life experience with pornography which explains how the porn industry reinforces and upholds the patriarchy. According to Jensen, women exist to provide their male counterparts with sexual excitement. This portrays that women are only used as sexual objects to promote arousing feeling in pornographic materials (Disch, 2008). Robert Jensen argues that in most pornographic films upholds and reinforces the Patriarchy by the introduction of anal sex. In his argument, he explains the concept behind this act being men’s, revenge to women’s bitchy characters. This shows that the female role is overpowered by the male position in the society thus portraying patriarchy. The introduction of multiple sexual partners also displays a sense of patriarchy as in most pornographic films; a man is given more than one woman to relate with sexually. This encourages polygamy in which is based on the male dominance according to the African society. Patriarchy promotes gender imbalance in the current

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

COMMERCIAL LAW Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

COMMERCIAL LAW - Essay Example In an effort to combat terrorism, the UK has introduced laws to punish perpetrators of these activities. Under the law, the principal terrorist offences are outlined. Under section 15 of the terrorism Act2, it is deemed an offence to get involved in a fundraising with prior information that the funds raised or property used for that matter may be used for terrorism activities. It is considered an offence to possess or use money or property for terrorist activities with reasonable cause to suspect such is used for the activities. The act further states that it is an offence to be involved in any arrangement that makes money or property to another party with knowledge or reasonable cause to have suspicion that it supports acts of terrorism. Finally the act clearly stipulates that it is an offence to be involved or concerned in arrangements that facilitate the control of terrorist property by or on behalf of a different person3. These laws have been effective in curtailing terrorism fin ancing in the UK. The discussion above clearly brings out the measures and their effectiveness in fighting the global vice. It is a measure that has been adopted across the world to combat and end terrorist activities. In conclusion therefore, it is prudent that states emulate the policies and laws enacted by the UK to fight terrorism financing. Being a global phenomenon, it is vital that other countries join the fight and come up with tighter legislations that will improve security for everyone around the world. Terrorism activities cause harm and instill fear to the general populace. Above all it causes death and punitive measures in form of legislation need to be adopted and effected. 1FH Newark, ‘The Boundaries of Nuisance’ (1949) 65 LQR 480; Richard Kidner, ‘Nuisance and Rights of Property’ [1998] Conv 267; Ken Oliphant,

Reconstructing gender Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 2

Reconstructing gender - Essay Example The concept of sexual schizophrenia has neutralized the demeaning male attitude towards women due to the female gender’s engagement in sports. Women are currently not viewed as objects of sexuality since they have gripped a stable position in the modern society by playing equal roles as their male counterparts. As a result, women are not only viewed as cheerleaders in sports but actual players in every sporting competition (Disch, 2008). Women tend to have different reactions towards the alleged male attitude towards sexuality. Most women in the youth age consider the male attitude towards them as an appraisal while those in the mature age find it diminishing. As a woman, Sabo’s description of male sexuality is true since women are viewed as stereotypes of the physical concept of sexuality. Pornography is the overt presentation of sexual acts in films as well as printed material. Robert Jensen provides his life experience with pornography which explains how the porn industry reinforces and upholds the patriarchy. According to Jensen, women exist to provide their male counterparts with sexual excitement. This portrays that women are only used as sexual objects to promote arousing feeling in pornographic materials (Disch, 2008). Robert Jensen argues that in most pornographic films upholds and reinforces the Patriarchy by the introduction of anal sex. In his argument, he explains the concept behind this act being men’s, revenge to women’s bitchy characters. This shows that the female role is overpowered by the male position in the society thus portraying patriarchy. The introduction of multiple sexual partners also displays a sense of patriarchy as in most pornographic films; a man is given more than one woman to relate with sexually. This encourages polygamy in which is based on the male dominance according to the African society. Patriarchy promotes gender imbalance in the current

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Voluntary Unemployment Essay Example for Free

Voluntary Unemployment Essay Throughout the history of the United States immigration has played a big role. In fact, the birth of the US came about because of Europeans that immigrated here for religious freedom. From those small settlements came towns and cities, built by immigrants. But not all migrated here for religious freedom. Many came on wishes for a better life or to pursue business deals. As early as 1610, Italian craftsmen were brought here to by the Virginia Colony to start the glass trade. So regardless of their drive, people have immigrated here since the beginning of the history of the United States and still continue to. Americans encouraged relatively free and open immigration during the eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries, and did not think anything of that policy until the middle 1900s. After some states passed immigration laws following the Civil War, the Supreme Court ruled in 1875 that the regulation of immigrants is a federal responsibility. As the number of immigrants rose in the 1880s and economic conditions in certain areas worsened, Congress started to use immigration legislation. The Chinese Exclusion Act was one such example. Under this act, passed on 6 MAY 1882, states the coming of Chinese laborers to this country endangers the good order of certain localities within the territory thereof. As a result, Angel Island was set up to detain and question Chinese Immigrants. Between this act and the Alien Contract Labor laws of 1885 and 1887, certain laborers were prohibited from immigrating to the United States. Also in used was the more general Immigration Act of 1882, which charged a head tax of fifty cents on each immigrant, and bar the entry of idiots, lunatics, convicts, and persons likely to become a public charge. Also passed were the Alien Acts of 1885, 1887, 1888 and 1891, prohibiting the immigration to the U.S. of persons entering the country to work under contracts made before their arrival. In 1888 provisions were adopted to provide the expulsion for aliens. All these immigration laws soon created the need for a Federal enforcement agency. In the 1880s, state board or commissions enforced immigration law with direction from U.S. Treasury Department officials. At the federal level,  U.S. Customs Collectors at each port of entry collected the head from immigrants, while Chinese Inspectors enforced the Chinese Exclusion Act (at Angel Island). Congress soon expanded the list of excludable classes, and as a result when the Immigration Act of 1891 barred polygamists, persons convicted of crimes of moral turpitude, and those suffering loathsome of contagious diseases from immigration, it also created the Office of the Superintendent of Immigration, located in the Treasury Department. Under the 1891 law, the Federal Government assumed the task of inspecting, admitting, rejecting, and processing all immigrants seeking to the United States. The Immigration Services (IS) first task was to collect arrival manifests (passenger lists) from each incoming ship, a responsibility of the Customs Service since 1820. Also enforcing immigration law was a new Federal function, and the 1890s witnessed the Services first attempts to implement national immigration policy. Operations began in New York Harbor at a new federal immigration station on Ellis Island, which opened 2 JAN 1892. The largest and busiest station for decades, Ellis Island housed inspection facilities, hearing and detention rooms, hospitals, cafeterias, administrative offices, and representatives of many immigrant aid societies. The station also employed 119 of the Services entire staff 180 in 1893. During its first decade at Ellis Island and other ports, the Service formalized basic immigration procedures. Inspectors questioned arrivals about their admissibility and noted their admission or rejection on manifest records. Detention guards and matrons cared for those people detained pending decisions in their cases, or those awaiting deportation. Often, aliens were excluded because they lacked funds o had no friends or relatives nearby. Congress continued to exert Federal control over immigration with the Act of 2 March 1895, which upgraded the Office of Immigration to the Bureau of Immigration and changed the agency heads title from Superintendent to Commissioner-General of Immigration. The Act of 6 June 1900, further merged immigration enforcement by assigning both Alien Contract Labor law and Chinese Exclusion responsibilities to the Commissioner-General. (In 1902, the Chinese Exclusion Act was extended for and indefinite amount of time.)  Also, since most immigration laws sought to protect American workers and wages, and Act of 14 February 1903, transferred the Bureau of Immigration from the Treasury Department to the newly created Department of Commerce and Labor. Attention then turned to naturalization; a duty assigned to Congress by the constitution but carried out by any court of record since 1802. A commission charged with investigating naturalization practice and procedure reported in 1905 that were was little or no uniformity among the nations more than 5, 000 naturalization courts. Congress responded with the Basic Naturalization Act of 1906, which framed the rules for naturalization in effect today. The 1906 law also proscribed standard naturalization forms, encouraged state and local courts to relinquish their naturalization jurisdiction to Federal Courts, and expanded the Bureau of Immigration into the Bureau of Immigration and Naturalization (INS). After the creation of the INS, a few more Immigration Acts or revisions were passed (1906-1910). Procedural safeguards for naturalization were enacted in 1906, in which knowledge of English was a requirement. Also the Immigration Act of 1907 extended the restrictions of earlier acts by using synonyms for criminals and the insane. Section One of the act was aimed at keeping Japanese and Koreans out of the Gentlemens Act between the U.S and Japan. While the Congress continued to strengthen national immigration with this act, a Presidential Commission investigated the causes of massive emigration out of Southern and Eastern Europe and a Congressional Commission reports later influenced the writing and passing of future acts, such as the Immigration Act of 1917, which required that immigrants be able to read and write in their native language. Although the United States of America is referred to as the melting pot, which it is, it did not achieve that name without numerous acts and laws restricting or containing immigration. Despite what people may think, with out some of these acts, the U.S. could have been subject to extreme over-population. However, it can be argued that the time during 1875 and 1910, there where an excess of acts passed which now would be considered  extremely discriminative and racist. The final word is that immigration continues to this day with restrictions to keep it over control, and they are needed.

Monday, October 14, 2019

Review The Tennessee Valley Authority And Its Consequences History Essay

Review The Tennessee Valley Authority And Its Consequences History Essay When it was established in 1933, the Tennessee Valley Authority was an extremely controversial organization. As part of Roosevelts New Deal and his first hundred days, in which he initiated many new programs to jump start the nations economy and put people back to work, the TVA was charged with the responsibility of providing electricity, improving infrastructure, and enhancing the quality of life of the deeply depressed people living in the Tennessee Valley. During the Great Depression, those populating this area resided in log cabins, with only the bare essentials needed to survive, and sometimes less. Their objectives of electrifying rural America came into direct conflict with the capitalistic ambitions of private utility companies. Also, in order to accomplish their goals of improving the Tennessee Valleys waterways for transportation meant building dams and man-made lakes, displacing thousands of locals who had inhabited the area for hundreds of years. This operation not only i nvolved relocating families to their new homes, which was met with an exceptional amount of resistance, but exhuming the thousands of graves and reburying them at new sites. However, although the work done by the TVA in this area was sometimes flawed, and hated by many people in which the program aimed to help, the organization helped to bring modern commodities to a region that had been devastated by the economic crisis of the Great Depression. The Tennessee Valley During the Depression The area surrounding the prospective site for Norris Dam had been settled for the past two hundred years and, like much of Americas farmland further west, the land showed signs of exhaustion by farmers who did not consider the long term effects of over farming. Prior to the Depression, many young men and women from the Tennessee Valley would move away from the area to their own farms or to new cities of an increasingly industrialized Midwest. However, when tough economic times hit the American people during the Great Depression, many of those who had left to begin their own lives returned home to the safety and the familiar surroundings of their Tennessee homes. In the years between 1930 and 1935, the Tennessee Valley saw an increase in the areas population, which made living off what little the land provided even more difficult than before.  [1]   Farmers in the Tennessee Valley primarily raised corn for their animals and livestock while raising other crops for personal consumption. Tobacco was also raised to bring in a source of revenue, providing farmers with something they could sell in order to buy things they could not make or grow at home. Farming primarily for ones own personal use, called subsistence farming, was a way of life in the Tennessee Valley which allowed for very few luxuries to the people which lived there. The 3500 farming families in the area which would be flooded by the Norris Dam included both property owners and tenant farmers, or farmers who grew cash crops like tobacco on another persons land in exchange for a place to live. Living conditions in the Tennessee Valley were extremely difficult for both of these groups. Even during the most prosperous of times, there was not nearly enough money gained by way of local taxes to provide for adequate public schools, health services, or road construction.   [2]   Founding of the Tennessee Valley Authority One of the TVAs primary objectives was to improve infrastructure and the ability to transport goods through the Tennessee Valley through the use of its rivers and other waterways. This was particularly the case with an area of the Tennessee valley known as Muscle Shoals, Alabama, where the Tennessee River falls 140 feet in elevation over about thirty miles. This dramatic drop in altitude produced the rapids or shoals that the area received its named for, and made it extremely difficult for ships to go through and travel up further the Tennessee River. In 1916 the federal government gained ownership of the region and began drawing up plans to build a dam there. The proposed dam was intended to produce electricity which was needed to manufacture explosives for the war effort. However, the First World War ended before the sites could be completed and utilized. During the next few years, the government debated over what should be done with the area. Some members of Congress argued that t he dam should be sold to private organizations. Senator  George W. Norris  from Nebraska, on the other hand, argued that the public should retain control over the area. Norris had attempted several times to initiate bills for the federal development of the region. However, they were all defeated by Republican administrations who saw no advantages to retaining the area. With the onset of the Great Depression, Americans viewed government economic intervention in the public interest much more favorably. The newly elected President Roosevelt, who had a previous interest in regional planning, conservation, and planning, supported Norris proposal to develop the Tennessee River Valley.  [3]   On the 18th of May, 1933 Roosevelt signed the Tennessee Valley Authority Act as part of his first 100 days. The objectives of the TVA was to improve transportation along the Tennessee River, provide methods for flood control, plan reforestation, improve the quality of the poor farm lands, aid in industrial and agricultural development, and assist in the national defense effort with the development of government owned phosphorus and nitrate manufacturing sites at Muscle Shoals. Although almost ninety percent of those living in urban areas had electricity by the 1930s, this was only true for ten percent of people living in rural areas. Private electricity companies, who were the primary suppliers of electric power to the nations consumers, insisted that it would be too expensive to build electric lines to small, isolated rural farmsteads. They also argued that most farmers would not even be able to afford electricity in the event that they were provided the opportunity. Roosevelt and his administration held the belief that if private electricity companies could not or would not supply electric power to the American people, then it was the responsibility of the federal government to do it. In 1935, the Rural Electric Administration was established to electrify to rural areas such as the Tennessee Valley. In his 1935 article Electrifying the Countryside, the head of the REA, Morris Cooke, stated that: Though rural power uses of electricity began thirty-five years ago on an irrigated farm in California, the 1930 Census showed that only one tenth of American farms had central station service. One of the barriers to the development of farm electrification has been the rural line extension policy of many of the utilities. The power company has persisted in regarding the farmer not as a potential power customer, but as a small domestic consumer.  [4]   By the start of 1939 the REA had assisted in establishing several hundred rural electric cooperatives, which provided services to about 300,000 homes. Rural households with electricity had risen to twenty-five percent. Furthermore, the acts of the REA motivated private power companies to provide electricity to the countryside as well. When farmers did finally receive electric power, they helped to support local merchants by purchasing electric appliances. As in turned out, farmers generally required more energy than those living in the city, which helped to balance the extra expenses on the part of the electric companies in bringing power lines to the rural areas. The Tennessee Valley Authority established the Electric Home and Farm Authority to assist farmers in purchasing major electric appliances. The EHFA made special arrangements with appliance manufacturers to provide electric ranges, water heaters, and refrigerators at prices most farmers could afford. The new appliances were sold at local electric cooperatives and utility companies. It was here that a farmer could purchase appliances with loans offered by the EHFA, who provided these loans with low-cost financing.  [5]   Electrification of rural land was based on the idea that affordable electricity would help to improve the standard of living and the economic independence of the traditional family farm. But electricity alone was not nearly enough to put a stop the hardships being faced by Americas farm communities. Furthermore, it did not stop the migration of rural farmers from the country to the city, or did the shrinking of the total number of family owned farms. Opposition to the TVA There were many people who opposed the TVA and the federal governments participation in developing electric power in rural areas, in particular utility companies who thought that the government had an unfair advantage when competing with private companies. Also, some members of the Congress who didnt believe the government should have the right to influence the economy, thought that the TVA was a potentially dangerous program which would bring the United States just that much closer to socialism.  [6]  Others believed that rural farmers did not have the knowledge or skills needed to maintain and support local electric companies.  [7]   The most powerful opposition to the Tennessee Valley Authority came from power companies, who found it hard to compete with the cheaper energy provided through the TVA, and they saw it as a danger to private development. They argued that the federal governments participation in the electricity industry was unconstitutional. The attack on the TVA was led by future presidential candidate Wendell Willkie, then president of the large power utility company Commonwealth Southern Company. During the 1930s, many court cases were brought against the TVA. The Alabama Power Company presented a lawsuit against the TVA that made it all the way to the Supreme Court. They argued that by entering into the electricity industry, the federal government had surpassed its Constitutional powers. However, there attempts proved unsuccessful. In February of 1936, the Supreme Court came to the decision that the TVA had the right and authority to produce power at Wilson Dam as well as to sell and distribute that electricity. In 1939 the Court again maintained the constitutionality of the Tennessee Valley Authority.  [8]   Consequences of the TVA The TVA was established in part to improve the standard of living in an region which was home to three-and-a-half million people. When Norris Dam was constructed, it submerged an space of 239 square acres where about 3,500 families resided. The Act establishing the TVA gave it the authority to exercise the right of  eminent domain, and in the purchase of any real estate or the condemnation of real estate by condemnation proceedings, the title to such real estate.  [9]   Even though the TVA had been established for the purpose of improving the living conditions of the people living in the Tennessee Valley, the federal government neglected to offer much of any assistance in resettling the displaced families of the Norris Basin. In this area, farm owners were supplied with cash settlements for their property and were given help in the search for a new home. Tenants, who merely worked on the land but did not own it, received no payment at all. The Norris Basin had been home for thousands of families for centuries. Generations of people had been buried there. In addition to relocating all of the areas living population, all of the regions dead had to be exhumed from their graves and reburied in places outside the reach of the lakes created by the Norris dam. For both the farm families and the TVA workers alike, this process was extremely difficult.  [10]   Some of the families displaced by the Norris Dam benefited from the work of the TVA. Many people saw that their new homes were nicer and more comfortable than their old log cabin ones. Additionally, approximately one out of five had a member of their family who was employed by the TVA. However, sixty percent of the relocated families were relocated to new homes within the Norris Basin, which, even after the efforts of the TVA, continued to be a region prone to the same kind of problems of bad farming conditions and overpopulation and which had been a source of trouble from them prior. Similarly to other planned communities developed during FDRs New Deal, the small town of Norris was initially supposed to be a great display for the electrification of rural America and city planning. Many people believed that Norris would be the perfect home for those displaced people from the Norris Basin. However, the construction workers who came to the area in order to build the Norris Dam also needed a place to stay. Because of this, Norris originally functioned as temporary housing for the TVA workers and their families, while the residents of the Norris Basin were forced to find other accommodations, often times in areas just as poverty-stricken as where they had come from.  [11]   The idea that Norris would become a model American town was a mistaken one from the start. TVA authorities made regulations excluding African-American families from living in the town. They argued that these measures were taken in order to conform to the traditions and customs of the region. However, black leaders were quick to point out that impoverished white and black families had lived and worked together in the mountains and valleys of the basin for many years prior to the arrival of the TVA. During the 1930s, the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People coordinated three separate investigations of Tennessee Valley Authority for racial discrimination in the housing and hiring of African-Americans. A man named Arthur Morgan, who was very interested in community planning, imagined Norris as a self-sustaining community of people who involved themselves in small, local cooperative industries. Early in the development of Norris, some cooperative businesses were established. These included canneries, creameries, and poultry farms. The communitys public school became a focal point of of community activity. Educational classes were given to children as well as adults, and for the town people themselves and for the farming families from the surrounding communities. However, despite Morgans ambition and noble goals for the town, living in Norris was operated much like any other company town. The TVA managed almost every aspect of activity in Norris. Everything from the towns gas station to its cafeteria was operated by the TVA.  [12]   When the dam was finished, the construction workers left Norris. Working professionals who were employed by TVA or in nearby Knoxville saw Norris as a practical alternative to life in the city, and the town slowly transformed into a white collar suburb of Knoxville. As the towns inhabitants became more affluent, and were required to travel to jobs which were outside of Norris, the cooperative organizations and many of the community driven activities diminished. In 1948, the government sold the town to a private corporation, who in turn resold the individual lots to the residents. The TVA made many advancements to the Tennessee Valley in terms of infrastructure, and the quality of life for the majority of the areas residents. This region was one of the hardest hit by the Great Depression. The majority of Americans living in rural areas were living without electricity at the start of the 1930s. Private utility companies were unwilling to spend the money needed to reach these rural communities with their power lines. As part of his attempt to bring the United States out of the Depression and into the modern era, Franklin Roosevelt initiated many new work programs, including the TVA. Unfortunately, these advancements sometimes came with sacrifice for those residents, in particular the displaced families of the Norris Basin. However, without these sacrifices, it may not have been possible for the people living in Tennessee Valley to improve their living conditions.